Validation of the oral health impact profile applied to patients with periodontal disease


  • José Moral-de la Rubia Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León (UANL)
  • Norma Idalia Rodríguez-Franco Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León



Factor analysis, Oral health, Dental clinics, Periodontitis, Gingivitis


Introduction: the metric properties of the Oral Health Impact Profile applied to Periodontal Disease (OHIP-14-PD) have not been properly studied and questions remain about the factor structure of OHIP-14. The objectives of the present study were to analyze the distribution, discriminability, and internal consistency of the items and total score of the OHIP-14-PD, prove their discriminant validity to differentiate between periodontal and gingivitis patients, explore their factor structure, and contrast several factor models proposed for the OHIP-14, determining the internal consistency and the convergent and discriminant validity of its factors. Methods: a non-probabilistic sample was gathered including 249 adult dental patients in the city of Monterrey (Mexico). Results: the internal consistency of the 14 items was very high (ordinal α = 0.928). The distribution of the total score showed asymmetry and positive kurtosis, i.e. concentration in low scores. The central tendency of periodontal patients was significantly higher than that of gingivitis patients. The exploratory factor analysis yielded two models: one with one factor, and one with three factors (physical impact [items 1 to 4 and 7], physical disability [items 5 and 6] and psychosocial impact [items 8 to 14]). The hierarchical factor models proposed for the OHIP-14 showed standardized parameters outside the range of allowable values. Conclusions: The OHIP-14-PD has internal consistency and discriminant validity. The one-factor model is the best model. Its adjustment improves by specifying a correlation between the residuals of the two items corresponding to the physical disability factor.

= 290 veces | PDF
= 114 veces|


Download data is not yet available.

Author Biographies

José Moral-de la Rubia, Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León (UANL)

PhD, Psychology Department, Universidad de Alcalá de Henares, Spain. Professor-Researcher, School of Psychology, Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León (UANL), Mexico.

Norma Idalia Rodríguez-Franco, Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León

Master in Dental Sciences with a focus in Periodontology. ProfessorResearcher, School of Dentistry, Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León (UANL). PhD student with a focus in Psychology, School of Psychology, UANL


Locker D. Measuring oral health: a conceptual framework. Community Dent Health. 1988; 5(1):3-18.

Slade GD. Derivation and validation of a short-form oral health impact profile. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol. 1997; 25(4):284-89.

Mello dos Santos C, de Oliveira BH, Nadanovsky P, Balbinot J, Keller R, Hugo FN. The Oral Health Impact Profile-14: a unidimensional scale? Cad. Saúde Pública 2013; 29(4), 749-57.

Brennan DS, Spencer AJ. Dimensions of oral health related quality of life measured by EQ-5D+ and OHIP-14. Health Qual Life Outcomes. 2004; 2:35.

Montero J, Bravo M, Vicente MP, Galindo MP, López JF, Albaladejo A. Dimensional structure of the oral health-related quality of life in healthy Spanish workers. Health Qual Life Outcomes 2010; 8:24.

Silveira, MF, Marôco JP, Freire RS, Martins AM, Marcopito LF. Impact of oral health on physical and psychosocial dimensions: an analysis using structural equation modeling Cad. Saúde Pública. 2014; 30(6):1169-82.

Zucoloto ML, Maroco J, Campos JADB. Psychometric properties of the Oral Health Impact Profile and new methodological approach. J Dent Res 2014; 93(7):645-50.

Rodríguez NI, Moral J. Development and validation of content of Oral Health Impact Profile applied to Periodontal Disease. J Oral Res. Forthcoming 2017.

Garson GD. Validity and reliability. Asheboro, NC: Statistical Associates Publishers; 2016.

Lloret S, Ferreres A, Hernández A, Tomás I. El análisis factorial exploratorio de los ítems: una guía práctica, revisada y actualizada. Anales de Psicología. 2014; 30(3):1151-69.

Courtney MGR. Determining the number of factors to retain in EFA: using the SPSS R-Menu v2.0 to make more judicious estimations. Practical Assessment, Research & Evaluation. 2013; 18(8):1-13. Disponible en:

Valdivieso CE. Efecto de los métodos de estimación en las modelaciones de estructuras de covarianzas sobre un modelo estructural de evaluación del servicio de clases. Comunicaciones en Estadística. 2013; 6(1):21-44.

Harlow LL, Mulaik SA, Steiger JH. What if there were no significance tests?: New York, NY: Routledge; 2016.

Byrne BM. Structural equation modeling with Amos: Basic concepts, applications, and programming. 3rd ed. New York, NY: Routledge; 2016.

Perry JL, Nicholls AR, Clough PJ, Crust, L.. Assessing model fit: Caveats and recommendations for confirmatory factor analysis and exploratory structural equation modeling. Measurement in Physical Education and Exercise Science. 2015; 19(1), 12-21.

Koubaa Y, Srarfi-Tabbane R, Chaabouni-Jallouli R. On the use of structural equation modeling in marketing image research. Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics. 2014; 26(2):315-38.

Henseler J., Ringle CM., Sarstedt M. A new criterion for assessing discriminant validity in variance-based structural equation modeling. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science. 2015; 43(1), 115-135.

Cohen F, Bessa MA, Souza R, Bovi GM, Valle A, Guedes D. Psychometric properties of the OHIP-14 and prevalence and severity of oral health impacts in a rural riverine population in Amazonas State, Brazil. Cad. Saúde Pública. 2010; 26(6):1122-30.

Taha S, Clarkson BH. Clinician's guide to the diagnosis and management of tooth sensitivity. Verlag: Berlin, Springer; 2014.

Blanco-Aguilera A, Blanco-Hungría A, Biedma L, Serrano R, González L, Blanco E, Segura R. Application of an oral health-related quality of life questionnaire in primary care patients with orofacial pain and temporomandibular disorders. Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal. 2014; 19(2):e127-e135.

Eltas A, Uslu MO, Eltas SD. Association of Oral Health-related Quality of Life with periodontal status and treatment needs. Oral Health Prev Dent. 2016; 14(4):339-47.

León S, Bravo Cavicchioli D, Correa Beltrán G, Giacaman RA. Validation of the Spanish version of the Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-14Sp) in elderly Chileans. BMC Oral Health. 2014; 14(95):1-9.

Panayides P. Coefficient alpha: interpret with caution. Europe’s Journal of Psychology. 2013; 9(4):687-696.




How to Cite

Moral-de la Rubia, J., & Rodríguez-Franco, N. I. (2017). Validation of the oral health impact profile applied to patients with periodontal disease. Revista Facultad De Odontología Universidad De Antioquia, 29(1), 148–172.

Similar Articles

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 > >> 

You may also start an advanced similarity search for this article.