Partial replacement of corn with glycerin: digestibility and ruminal fermentation kinetics by in vitro gas production


  • Vanessa Peripolli Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul. NESPRO/UFRGS
  • Ênio R Prates
  • Júlio OJ Barcellos
  • João Batista G Costa Jr
  • Rúbia B Lopes
  • Claudia M Camargo



bicompartimental logistic model, biodiesel by-product, energy, neutral detergent fiber, partitioning factor


 glycerin, a co-product of biodiesel production, could be included in animal feeds. Objective: to evaluate the effects of partial replacement of corn with glycerin on digestibility and ruminal fermentation kinetics, estimated by the in vitro gas production technique. Methods: dietary treatments consisted of corn substitution with crude glycerin (0, 4, 8, and 12% on a dry matter basis). In vitro digestibility of neutral detergent fiber and organic matter were calculated as the difference between the amount of incubated and undigested substrate. Cumulative gas pressure was measured in vitro using automatic equipment. Gas production kinetics was analyzed using a dual-pool logistic model. Results: increasing levels of crude glycerin to replace corn did not affect in vitro digestibility of neutral detergent fiber, organic matter, ammonia nitrogen content, or degradation rates. A negative linear effect on the partitioning factor and a linear increase in the rapidly degradable fraction were observed with the inclusion of crude glycerin. Conclusions: dietary inclusion of up to 12% crude glycerin (dry matter basis) replacing corn did not affect diet digestibility. A greater volume of gas was observed with the highest inclusion level of glycerin, indicating that alfalfa hay, corn and crude glycerin combination could affect fermentation, suggesting the occurrence of associative effects.

= 154 veces | PDF
= 93 veces| | HTML
= 20 veces|


Download data is not yet available.

Author Biography

Vanessa Peripolli, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul. NESPRO/UFRGS

Programa de Pós-Graduação em Zootecnia, NESPRO/UFRGS


Abo El-Nor S, Abughazaleh AA, Potua RB, Hastings D, Khattab MSA. Effects of differing levels of glycerol on rumen fermentation and bacteria. Anim Feed Sci Tech 2010; 162:99-105.ANP. Agência Nacional do Petróleo 2013. Available from: Official Methods of Analysis. 12th ed., Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Washington, DC; 1975.AOAC. Official Methods of Analysis. 15th ed., Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Washington, D.C;1990.Avila JS, Chaves AV, Hernandes-Calva M, Beauchemin KA, McGinn SM, Wang Y, Harstad OM, McAllister TA. Effects of replacing barley grain in feedlot diets with increasing levels of glycerol on in vitrofermentation and methane production. Anim Feed Sci Tech 2011; 166-167:265-268. Benedeti PDB, Paulino PVR, Marcondes MI, Maciel IFS, Silva MC, Faciola AP. Partial replacement of ground corn with glycerolin beef cattle diets: intake, digestibility, performance, and carcasscharacteristics. PLOS.One 2016; 28:1-16. Caton JS, Dhuyvetter DV. Influence of energy supplementation on grazing ruminants: requirements and responses. J. Anim. Sci. 1997; 75:533-542. Chai W, Udén P. An alternative oven method combined with different detergent strengths in the analysis of neutral detergent fiber. Anim Feed Sci Tech 1998; 74:281-288. Drouillard JS. Utilization of crude glycerine in beef cattle. In: MAKKAR, H. P. S. Biofuel co-products as livestock feed – opportunities and challenges. Rome: FAO; 2012. p. 155-162.Eiras CE, Barbosa LP, Marques JA, Araújo FL, Lima BS, Zawadzki F, Perotto D, Prado IN. Glycerine levels in the diets of crossbred bulls finished in feedlot: Apparent digestibility,feed intake and animal performance. Anim Feed Sci Tech 2014; 197:222-226.Françozo MC, Prado IN, Cecato U, Valero MV, Zawadzki F, Ribeiro OL, Prado RM, Visentainer JV. Growth performance,carcass characteristics and meat quality of finishing bulls fed crude glycerin-supplemented diets. Braz Arch Biol Technol2013; 56:327-336. Getachew G, Robinson PH, Depeters EJ, Taylor SJ. Relationshipsbetween chemical composition, dry matter degradation and in vitro gas production of several ruminant feeds. Anim Feed Sci Tech 2004; 111:57-71. Goering HK, Van Soest PJ. Forage fiber analyses (apparatus,regents, procedures, and some aplications). Agriculture Handbook379. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington (DC); 1970. Hagopian K, Ramsey JJ, Weindruch, R. Enzymes of glyceroland glyceraldehyde metabolism in mouse liver: effects of caloric restriction and age on activities. Bioscience Rep 2008;28:107-115.Krueger NA, Anderson RC, Tedeschi LO, Callaway TL, EdringtonTS, Nisbet DJ. Evaluation of feeding glycerol on free-fatty acid production and fermentation kinetics of mixed ruminal microbes in vitro. Bioresour. Technol 2010; 101:8469-8472. Larson J, Hoffman PC. Technical note: A method to quantifyprolamin proteins in corn that are negatively related to starch digestibility in ruminants. J Dairy Sci 2008; 91:4834-4839. Lee SY, Lee SM, Cho YB, Kam DK, Lee SC, Kim CY, Seo S. Glycerol as feed supplement for ruminants: In vitrofermentation characteristics and methane production. AnimFeed Sci Tech 2011; 166-167:269-274.Makkar HPS. Recent advances in the in vitrogas method for evaluation of nutritional quality of feed resources. In: Assessing Quality and Safety of the Animal Feeds. FAO Animal Production and Health Series 160. FAO: Roma; 2004. p.55-88.Mendoza O, Ellis M, McKeith F, Gaines A. Metabolizable energycontent of refined glycerin and its effects on growth performance and carcass and pork quality characteristics of finishing pigs. J. Anim.Sci. 2010; 88:3887-3895.Meral Y, Kara Ç, Biricik H. Influence of glycerol supplementationto dairy and feedlot cattle diets on performance and health: a review. J Biol Environ Sci 2015; 9:109-117. Meurer F, Franzen A, Piovesan P, Rossato KA, Santos LD. Apparent energy digestibility of glycerol from biodieselproduction for Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus, Linnaeus1758). Aquac Res 2012; 43:1734-1737.

NRC. Ruminant Nitrogen Usage. Washington (DC): NationalAcademic Press; 1985.Omazic AW, Kronqvist C, Zhongyan L, Martens H, Holtenius, K. The fate of glycerol entering the rumen of dairy cows and sheep. J Anim Physiol a Anim Nutr 2015; 99:258-264. SAS, 2002. SAS/STAT package. Version 9.3. SAS Inst. Inc., Cary, NC, USA.Satter LD, Slyter LL. Effect of ammonia concentration on rumen microbial protein production in vitro.Br J Nutr 1974; 32:199-208.Schofield P, Pitt RE, Pell AN. Kinetics of fiber digestion from in vitro gas production. J. Anim. Sci. 1994; 72: 2980-2991. Van Soest PJ, Robertson JB, Lewis BA. Methods for dietary fiber, neutral detergent fiber and non-starch polysaccharides in relation to animal nutrition. J Dairy Sci 1991; 74:3583-3597. Yang F, Hanna MA, Sun R. Value-added uses for crude glycerol–abyproduct of biodiesel production. Biotechnol Biofuels 2012; 5:1-10.




How to Cite

Peripolli, V., Prates, E. R., Barcellos, J. O., Costa Jr, J. B. G., Lopes, R. B., & Camargo, C. M. (2016). Partial replacement of corn with glycerin: digestibility and ruminal fermentation kinetics by in vitro gas production. Revista Colombiana De Ciencias Pecuarias, 29(3), 218–225.



Short communications

Most read articles by the same author(s)

Similar Articles

> >> 

You may also start an advanced similarity search for this article.