Manifestaciones tempranas de sobreentrenamiento en deportistas en el período precompetitivo antes de unos juegos nacionales: un estudio transversal

  • Mario Alberto Mercado Peña COMFAMA – SIMIMEDICAL IPS
  • Jaime Alberto Gallo Villegas Universidad de Antioquia
Palabras clave: Atletas, Deportes, Epidemiología, Rendimiento Atlético, Sobrecarga

Resumen

Objetivo: evaluar la frecuencia de manifestaciones tempranas del síndrome de sobre-entrenamiento (SSE) en deportistas antioqueños en el período precompetitivo antes de los Juegos Nacionales, Colombia 2012.

Materiales y métodos: con el cuestionario de la Sociedad Francesa de Medicina del Deporte (SMFS) se hizo un estudio transversal de 153 deportistas de alto rendimiento pertenecientes a 28 disciplinas diferentes.

Resultados: el promedio de edad fue de 23,6 ± 5,5 años; 56,9% eran hombres. La frecuencia de los síntomas tempranos del SSE fue del 24,8%. En los afectados se halló mayor volumen de entrenamiento (24,3 ± 10,3 frente a 19,7 ± 9,4 horas/semana; p = 0,018), con mayor frecuencia pertenecían a una disciplina individual (81,6% frente a 55,7%; p = 0,017), estaban estudiando (76,3% frente a 56,5%; p = 0,030), se encontraban en períodos de exámenes (42,1 frente a 21,2%; p = 0,029) y habían percibido más situaciones de estrés en el último mes (62,2% frente a 16,2%; p < 0,01).

Conclusiones: se encontró una alta frecuencia de manifestaciones tempranas del SSE, que fue mayor en las mujeres que en los hombres. Diversos factores individuales, relacionados con el entrenamiento y el tipo de deporte, podrían estar asociados con dichas manifestaciones.

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Biografía del autor/a

Mario Alberto Mercado Peña, COMFAMA – SIMIMEDICAL IPS
Médico, Especialista en Medicina Aplicada a la Actividad Física y al Deporte, Comfama-Simimedical IPS.
Jaime Alberto Gallo Villegas, Universidad de Antioquia
Médico, Especialista en Medicina Aplicada a la Actividad Física y al Deporte, Magíster en Epidemiología, Docente de la Facultad de Medicina de la Universidad de Antioquia y Especialista del Centro Clínico y de Investigación SICOR, Medellín, Colombia.

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Publicado
2014-10-01
Cómo citar
Mercado Peña, M. A., & Gallo Villegas, J. A. (2014). Manifestaciones tempranas de sobreentrenamiento en deportistas en el período precompetitivo antes de unos juegos nacionales: un estudio transversal. Iatreia, 27(4), 375-385. Recuperado a partir de https://revistas.udea.edu.co/index.php/iatreia/article/view/18319
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Artículo original