Una reflexión sobre la relevancia de las actitudes hacia el cáncer

Palabras clave: Actitudes, Afecto, Cáncer, Conducta, Conocimiento, Emoción

Resumen

El cáncer representa altas tasas de morbimortalidad humana, por ello su diagnóstico ha sido objeto de respuestas psicológicas diversas como las actitudes, las cuales denotan una tendencia de favorabilidad o desfavorabilidad hacia una entidad específica. Una revisión de la literatura publicada entre 2005 y 2017 sobre las actitudes hacia el cáncer, analizadas a través del modelo tripartito, dio lugar a reflexionar sobre la importancia que estas tienen, tanto para los pacientes, como para la población general y los profesionales de la salud. De acuerdo con lo anterior, se presentan las actitudes reportadas hacia el cáncer, la forma en que interactúan los conocimientos, las creencias, las emociones y las conductas y, también, las conclusiones de una postura crítica y analítica frente a estas actitudes con sus implicaciones para los profesionales de la salud.

Biografía del autor/a

Ximena Palacios-Espinosa, Universidad El Bosque. Universidad del Rosario, Bogotá.
Psicóloga, Universidad El Bosque, Bogotá. Magister en Psicología Clínica y de la Salud, Universidad de Granada, España. Doctora en Psicología Social, Università Degli Studi Di Bologna, Italia. Profesora Titular del Programa de Psicología. Profesora de Psicopatología y Psicología de la Salud en el Programa de Psicología de la UR, Coordinadora del Área de Ps. Clínica y de la Salud en la UR, Directora del Semillero de Psicooncología y Cuidado Paliativo. Editora de la Sección "Salud" de la Revista Avances en Psicología Latinoamericana. 
Jenny Fernanda Vargas-Jiménez, Universidad del Rosario, Bogotá.
Psicóloga, Supervisora Prácticas Psicología clínica de la Salud, Universidad del Rosario.
María Paula Calle-Nassiff, Universidad del Rosario, Bogotá.
Psicóloga, Universidad del Rosario.

Citas

(1.) Mukherjee S. El emperador de todos los males: Una biografía del cáncer. España: Taurus; 2014.

(2.) Organización Mundial de la Salud. Datos y cifras sobre el cáncer [Internet]. Ginebra: WHO; 2017 [citado Mayo 31 de 2017]. Disponible en: http://www.who.int/cancer/about/facts/es/

(3.) Instituto Nacional del Cáncer [Internet]. Estados Unidos: National Institutes of Health; 2014. El pronóstico del cáncer. Disponible en: http://www.cancer.gov/espanol/cancer/diagnostico-estadificacion/pronostico#estad%C3%ADsticas-supervivencia

(4.) Cho J, Smith K, Choi EK, Kim IR, Chang YJ, Park HY, et al. Public attitudes toward cancer and cancer patients: a national survey in Korea. J Psychosoc Oncol. 2013 Mar;22(3):605-13. DOI10.1002/pon.3041.

(5.) Palacios-Espinosa X, Zani B. La stigmatisation de la maladiephysique : le cas du cancer. J Psychosoc Oncol. 2012;6(4):189-200.

(6.) dos Santos Maia LF. Câncer de próstata: preconceitos, masculinidade e a qualidade de vida. Rev Latino-Am Enfermagem. 2012;2(6):16-20. DOI: 10.24276/rrecien2177-157X.2012.2.6.16-20.

(7.) Gökler-Danışman I, Yalçınay-İnan M, Yiğit İ. Experience of grief by patients with cancer in relation to perceptions of illness: The mediating roles of identity centrality, stigma-induced discrimination, and hopefulness. J Psychosoc Oncol. 2017 Nov-Dec;35(6):776-96. DOI 10.1080/07347332.2017.1340389.

(8.) Deniz S, Kurt B, Oğuzöncül AF, Nazlıcan E, Akbaba M, Nayir T. Knowledge, attitudes and behaviours of women regarding breast and cervical cancer in Malatya, Turkey. PLoS One. 2017 Nov;12(11):e0188571. DOI 10.1371/journal.pone.0188571.

(9.) Stainton Rogers W. Social Psychology. England: Mc-Graw-Hill; 2011.

(10.) AllportGW. Attitudes. In: Murchison C, editor. Handbook of Social Psychology. Worchester, MA: Clark University; 1935. p. 798-844.

(11.) Rodrigues A. Psicología para principiantes: estudio de la interacción humana. México: Trillas; 2004.

(12.) García V, D’Adamo O. Actitudes y Conducta: Actitudes Políticas. En: Morales Domínguez JF, Paez D, Kornblit A, Asún D. Psicología Social. México: Prentice Hall; 2002. P. 287-307.

(13.) Reyes Rodríguez L. La teoría de la acción razonada: implicaciones para el estudio de las actitudes. INED. 2007;(7):66-77. Disponible en: file:///C:/Users/Informatica/Downloads/Dialnet-LaTeoriaDeLaAccionRazonadaImplicacionesParaElEstud-358919.pdf

(14.) Breckler SJ. Empirical validation of affect, behavior, and cognition as distinct components of attitude. J PersSoc Psychol. 1984 Dec;47(6):1191-205.

(15.) Ajzen I. The theory of planned behaviour is alive and well, and not ready to retire: a commentary on Sniehotta, Presseau, and Araújo-Soares. HealthPsychol Rev. 2015;9(2):131-7. DOI 10.1080/17437199.2014.883474.

(16.) Kraus SJ. Attitudes and the prediction of behavior: a meta-analysis of the empirical literature. PersSocPsychol Bull; 1995,21(1):58-75. DOI 10.1177/0146167295211007.

(17.) Ajzen I, Fishbein M. Attitudes and the attitude-behavior Relation: Reasoned and automatic processes. En: Stroebe W, Hewstone M, editores. Europan review of social psychology [Internet]. Chichester, England: Wiley; 2000. p. 1-33. DOI 10.1080/14792779943000116.

(18.) Asuzu CC, Unegbu J, Akin-Odanye E. Knowledge, attitude and behaviour of the University of Ibadan women towards cancer of the cervix and its prevention. Psychooncology. 2012 Sep;21(9):1010-5. DOI 10.1002/pon.2007.

(19.) Kujan O, Alzoghaibi I, Azzeghaiby S, Altamimi MA, Tarakji B, Hanouneh S, et al. Knowledge and attitudes of Saudi dental undergraduates on oral cancer. J Cancer Educ. 2014 Dec;29(4):735-8. DOI10.1007/s13187-014-0647-5.

(20.) Sichanh C, Quet F, Chanthavilay P, Diendere J, Latthaphasavang V, Longuet C, et al. Knowledge, awareness and attitudes about cervical cancer among women attending or not an HIV treatment center in Lao PDR. BMC Cancer. 2014 Mar;14:161. DOI10.1186/1471-2407-14-161.

(21.) Sontag S. La enfermedad y sus metáforas: El sida y sus metáforas [Internet]. España: Titivillus; 2012. Disponible en: http://ceiphistorica.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/04/Susan-Sontag-La-enfermedad-y-susmet%C3%A1foras.-El-sida-y-sus-met%C3%A1foras.pdf

(22.) Ashing-Giwa KT, Padilla G, Tejero J, Kraemer J, Wright K, Coscarelli A, et al. Understanding the breast cancer experience of women: a qualitative study of African American, Asian American, Latina and Caucasian cancer survivors. Psychooncology. 2004 Jun;13(6):408-28.

(23.) Dein S. Explanatory models of and attitudes towards cancer in different cultures. Lancet Oncol. 2004 Feb;5(2):119-24.

(24.) Donnelly TT, Al Khater AH, Al-Bader SB, Al Kuwari MG, Al-Meer N, Malik M, et al. Beliefs and attitudes about breast cancer and screening practices among Arab women living in Qatar: a cross-sectional study. BMC Womens Health. 2013 Dec;13:49. DOI 10.1186/1472-6874-13-49.

(25.) Okobia MN, Bunker CH, Okonofua FE, Osime U. Knowledge, attitude and practice of Nigerian women towards breast cancer: a cross-sectional study. World J Surg Oncol. 2006 Feb 21;4:11.

(26.) Saleh M, Barlow-Stewart K, Meiser B, Tucker K, Eisenbruch M, Kirk J. Knowledge, attitudes and beliefs of Arabic-Australians concerning cancer. Psychooncology. 2012 Feb;21(2):195-202. DOI10.1002/pon.1884.

(27.) Karbani G, Lim JN, Hewison J, Atkin K, Horgan K, Lansdown M, et al. Culture, attitude and knowledge about breast cancer and preventive measures: a qualitative study of South Asian breast cancer patients in the UK. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2011;12(6):1619-26.

(28.) Aweke YH, Ayanto SY, Ersado TL. Knowledge, attitude and practice for cervical cancer prevention and control among women of childbearing age in Hossana Town, Hadiya zone, Southern Ethiopia: Community-based cross-sectional study. PLoS One. 2017 Jul;12(7):e0181415. DOI 10.1371/journal.pone.0181415.

(29.) Rabin C, Pinto B. Cancer-related beliefs and health behavior change among breast cancer survivors and their first-degree relatives. Psychooncology. 2006 Aug;15(8):701-12.

(30.) Gorawara-Bhat R, O’Muircheartaigh S, Mohile S, Dale W. Patients’ perceptions and attitudes on recurrent prostate cancer and hormone therapy: Qualitative comparison between decision-aid and control groups. J Geriatr Oncol. 2017 Sep;8(5):368-73. DOI 10.1016/j.jgo.2017.05.006.

(31.) Ali-Risasi C, Mulumba P, Verdonck K, VandenBroeck D, Praet M. Knowledge, attitude and practice about cancer of the uterine cervix among women living in Kinshasa, the Democratic Republic of Congo. BMC Womens Health. 2014 Feb;14(1):30. DOI 10.1186/1472-6874-14-30.

(32.) Muhbies FJ, Sheren Al-Doski NA. Attitude of patients toward cancer and its treatment. Int J Acad Res [Internet]. 2010;2(4):196-200. Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/311456203_ATTITUDE_OF_PATIENTS_TOWARD_CANCER_AND_ITS_TREATMENT

(33.) Die Trill M. Influencia de la cultura en la experiencia del cáncer. Psicooncología. 2003;(1):39-48.

(34.) Del Castillo A, Godoy-Izquierdo D, Vázquez ML, Godoy JF. Illness beliefs about cancer among healthy adults who have and have not lived with cancer patients. Int J Behav Med. 2011 Dec;18(4):342-51. DOI 10.1007/s12529-010-9141-6.

(35.) Dumalaon-Canaria JA, Hutchinson AD, Prichard I, Wilson C. What auses breast cancer? A systematic review of causal attributions among breast cancer survivors and how these compare to expert-endorsed risk factors. Cancer Causes Control. 2014 Jul;25(7):771-85. DOI 10.1007/s10552-014-0377-3.

(36.) Stein K, Zhao L, Crammer C, Gansler T. Prevalence and sociodemographic correlates of beliefs regarding cancer risks. Cancer. 2007 Sep;110(5):1139-48.

(37.) Kowalkowski MA, Hart SL, Du XL, Baraniuk S, Latini DM. Cancer perceptions: implications from the 2007 Health Information National Trends Survey. J Cancer Surviv. 2012 Sep;6(3):287-95. DOI 10.1007/s11764-012-0217-y.

(38.) Dandash KF, Al-Mohaimeed A. Knowledge, attitudes, and practices surrounding breast cancer and screening in female teachers of buraidah, saudiarabia. Int J Health Sci (Qassim). 2007 Jan;1(1):61-71.

(39.) Geraghty JG, Zbar A, Costa A. Informing the public about advances in cancer therapy. Eur J Cancer Care (Engl). 2002 Mar;11(1):25-32.

(40.) Gilani SI, Khurram M, Mazhar T, Mir ST, Ali S, Tariq S, et al. Knowledge, attitude and practice of a Pakistani female cohort towards breast cancer. J Pak Med Assoc. 2010 Mar;60(3):205-8.

(41.) Luquis RR, Villanueva Cruz IJ. Knowledge, attitudes, and perceptions about breast cancer and breast cancer screening among Hispanic women residing in South Central Pennsylvania. J Community Health. 2006 Feb;31(1):25-42.

(42.) McCaffery K, Wardle J, Waller J. Knowledge, attitudes, and behavioral intentions in relation to the early detection of colorectal cancer in the United Kingdom. Prev Med. 2003 May;36(5):525-35.

(43.) Odusanya OO, Tayo OO. Breast cancer knowledge, attitudes and practice among nurses in Lagos, Nigeria. Acta Oncol. 2001;40(7):844-8.

(44.) Quaife SL, Marlow LAV, McEwen A, Janes SM, Wardle J. Attitudes towards lung cancer screening in socioeconomically deprived and heavy smoking communities: informing screening communication. Health Expect. 2017 Aug;20(4):563-73. DOI 10.1111/hex.12481.

(45.) Keeney S, McKenna H, Fleming P, McIlfatrick S. Attitudes to cancer and cancer prevention: what do people aged 35-54 years think? Eur J Cancer Care (Engl). 2010 Nov;19(6):769-77. DOI 10.1111/j.1365-2354.2009.01137.x.

(46.) Duong DK, Shariff-Marco S, Cheng I, Naemi H, Moy LM, Haile R, et al. Patient and primary care provider attitudes and adherence towards lung cancer screening at an academic medical center. Prev Med Rep. 2017 Jan;6:17-22. DOI 10.1016/j.pmedr.2017.01.012.

(47.) Elmubarak E, Bromfield E, Bovell-Benjamin AC. Focused interviews with Sudanese Americans: perceptions about diet, nutrition, and cancer. Prev Med. 2005 May;40(5):502-9.

(48.) Jones DP. Knowledge, Beliefs and Feelings about Breast Cancer: The Perspective of African American Women. ABNF J. 2015 Winter;26(1):5-10.

(49.) Sudenga SL, Rositch AF, Otieno WA, Smith JS. Knowledge, attitudes, practices, and perceived risk of cervical cancer among Kenyan women: brief report. Int J GynecolCancer. 2013 Jun;23(5):895-9. DOI 10.1097/IGC.0b013e31828e425c.

(50.) Alharbi NA, Alshammari MS, Almutairi BM, Makboul G, El-Shazly MK. Knowledge, awareness, and practices concerning breast cancer among Kuwaiti female school teachers. Alex J Med. marzo de 2012;48(1):75–82. DOI 10.1016/j.ajme.2011.10.003.

(51.) Alwan NAS, Al-Diwan JKA, Al-Attar WM, Eliessa RA. Knowledge, attitude & practice towards breast cancer & breast self examination in Kirkuk University, Iraq. AsianPac J Reprod. 2012;1(4):308-11. DOI 10.1016/S2305-0500(13)60098-6.

(52.) Anagnostopoulos F, Spanea E. Assessing illness representations of breast cancer: a comparison of patients with healthy and benign controls. J Psychosom Res. 2005 Apr;58(4):327-34.

(53.) Ertem G, Dönmez YC, Dolgun E. Determination of the Health Belief and Attitude of Women Regarding Breast Cancer and Breast Self-Exam. J Breast Health. 2017 Apr;13(2):62-66. DOI 10.5152/tjbh.2017.3018.

(54.) Breslow RA, Sorkin JD, Frey CM, Kessler LG. Americans’ knowledge of cancer risk and survival. Prev Med. 1997 Mar-Apr;26(2):170-7.

(55.) Park CL, Zlateva I, Blank TO. Self-identity after cancer:“survivor”,“victim”, “patient”, and “person with cancer”. J Gen Intern Med. 2009 Nov;24 Suppl2:S430-5. DOI 10.1007/s11606-009-0993-x.

(56.) Cordova MJ, Giese-Davis J, Golant M, Kronnenwetter C, Chang V, McFarlin S, et al. Mood disturbance in community cancer support groups. The role of emotional suppression and fighting spirit. J Psychosom Res. 2003 Nov;55(5):461-7.

(57.) Hopman P, Rijken M. Illness perceptions of cancer patients: relationships with illness characteristics and coping. Psychooncology. 2015 Jan;24(1):11-8. DOI 10.1002/pon.3591.

Publicado
2019-04-01
Sección
Artículos de revisión