Smoking cessation in a community pharmacy: preliminary results of a pharmaceutical care programme

Authors

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.17533/udea.vitae.v22n1a05

Keywords:

Pharmacist, Smoking Cessation, Community Pharmacy, Pharmaceutical care

Abstract


Background: According to the World Health Organisation, tobacco use is one of the most widespread public health threats in the world, making it particularly urgent to promote smoking cessation. The effectiveness of pharmacist interventions in smoking cessation has been documented in the international literature, but not sufficiently in Portugal. Objective: To report the preliminary results of study to assess the effectiveness of a smoking cessation programme delivered in Portuguese community pharmacies using an outsorcing-based regimen. Methods: Within the scope of a pharmaceutical care programme implemented in seven community pharmacies by an outsourced pharmacist, a specific consultation for smoking cessation was developed, in accordance with Portugal’s General Directorate of Health’s recommendations and instruments. The smokers were identified and invited to join the programme by the pharmacy staff during their daily activities. Patients that accepted signed an informed consent. Through several face-to-face and phone consultations and based on a comprehensive patient approach, personalised plans to quit tobacco were defined with the patients’ agreement. The effectiveness of the service was assessed through the evaluation of quit rates at 1, 6 and 12 months. The continuous variables were expressed as mean ± standard error of the mean. Results: During approximately 5 years (between January 2009 and July 2014), 69 smokers joined the programme. Of these, 17 desisted during the first consultation. Of the remaining 52 patients, the mean age was 47.4 ± 2.11 years old and 55.8% were male. A total of 264 pharmaceutical consultations were delivered and, on average, each patient received 7.7 ± 0.81 interventions. Most interventions (60.1%) were pharmacological (e.g. nicotine replacement products), while non-pharmacological measures (e.g. motivational interviewing) represented 39.9%. Five patients were referred to a physician. At 1 month after the quit date, 37 patients were abstinent (53.6%); 6 months later the number reduced to 24 (34.8%) and, 1 year later, 16 patients remained abstinent (23.2%). Conclusions: The implementation of a smoking cessation programme in community pharmacies using an external pharmacist may contribute effectively to tobacco cessation in Portugal.

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Author Biographies

Monica CONDINHO, University of Combria

Faculty of Pharmacy, Pharmacology and Pharmaceutical Care, MSc

Fernando FERNÁNDEZ-LLIMOS, University of Lisbon

Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Social Pharmacy, Research Institute for Medicines (iMed.ULisboa), PhD

Isabel Vitrória FIGUEIREDO, University of Coimbra

Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacology and Pharmaceutical Care, Institute for Biomedical Imaging and Life Sciences (IBILI), PhD

Carlos SINOGAS, University of Evora

Science and Technology School, Department of Biology, PhD

References

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Direção-Geral da Saúde. Portugal: Prevenção e Controlo do Tabagismo em Números - 2013. Programa Nacional para a Prevenção e Controlo do Tabagismo. 2013. Available on http://www.dgs.pt/estatisticas-de-saude/estatisticas-de-saude/ publicacoes/portugal-prevencao-e-controlo-do-tabagismo-emnumeros-2013.aspx (Accessed 5 October 2014).

Saba M, Diep J, Saini B, Dhippayom T. Meta-analysis of the effectiveness of smoking cessation interventions in community pharmacy. J Clin Pharm Ther 2014; 39(3):240-7.

Costello M, Sproule B, Victor J, Leatherdale S, Zawertailo L, Selby P. Effectiveness of pharmacist counselling combined with nicotine replacement therapy: a pragmatic randomised trial with 6,987 smokers. Cancer Causes Control 2011; 22(2):167-80.

Dent L, Harris K, Noonan C. Randomized trial assessing the effectiveness of a pharmacist-delivered programme for smoking cessation. Ann Pharmacother 2009; 43(2):194-201.

Direção-Geral da Saúde. Cessação tabágica. Programa-tipo de actuação. Gradiva. 2007. Available on http://www.dgs.pt/upload/ membro.id/ficheiros/i009774.pdf (Accessed 28 November 2014).

Richmond RI, Kehoe LA, Webster IW. Multivariate models for predicting abstention following intervention to stop smoking by general practitioners. Addiction. 1993; 88(8):1127-35

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Published

2015-07-28

How to Cite

CONDINHO, M., FERNÁNDEZ-LLIMOS, F., FIGUEIREDO, I. V., & SINOGAS, C. (2015). Smoking cessation in a community pharmacy: preliminary results of a pharmaceutical care programme. Vitae, 22(1), 42–46. https://doi.org/10.17533/udea.vitae.v22n1a05

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Section

Pharmaceutical Care

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