Comparison and validation of a fast method for the extraction and quantification of α-linolenic, eicosapentaenoic, and docosahexaenoic fatty acids
Keywords:Fatty acids, gas chromatography, Bligh & Dyer, EPA, DHA, omega 3
Background: Omega 3 family fatty acids are currently widely studied for the diverse effects they have on cardiovascular disease risk factors. Seafood is the main natural source of these compounds. Objetives: In this paper the accuracy is verified on the fat extraction in fish, between two methods, using one of the most employees as it is the Bligh & Dyer since 1959, compared with SOXTEC, one more updated method with more modern equipment and validated quantification method for some omega 3 fatty acids by gas chromatography. Methods: Fat extraction was performed by SOXTEC and Bligh & Dyer with the use of a Certified Reference Material (SRM 1946). After having assessed the accuracy of both systems, a quantification method of α-Linolenic, Eicosapentaenoic, and Docosahexaenoic fatty acids was validated through gas chromatography. Results: It was found that the method proposed by Bligh & Dyer in 1959 is the most accurate because it showed better recovery percentages. Also, it was found that the quantification validation method of the most important omega 3 fatty acids complies with every parameter assessed throughout the validation. Conclusions: In conclusion SOXTEC being a more modernmethod which uses the latest technology, the Bligh & Dyer is the most effective method for removing fat in fish and gas chromatography allows quantification of fatty acids with precision and accuracy as meets the evaluated parameters.
Gladyshev MI, Sushchik NN, Makhutova ON. Production of EPA and DHA in aquatic ecosystems and their transfer to the land. Prostaglandins Other Lipid Mediat. 2013 Mar;
Pérez-Palacios T, Ruiz J, Martín D, Muriel E, Antequera T. Comparison of different methods for total lipid quantification in meat and meat products. Food Chem. 2008 Oct;110(4):1025-9.
Bligh E, Dyer W. A Rapid Method of Total Lipid Extraction and Purification. Can J Biochem Physiol. 1959;37(8):911-7.
Ramalhosa MJ, Paíga P, Morais S, Rui Alves M, Delerue-Matos C, Oliveira MBPP. Lipid content of frozen fish: Comparison of different extraction methods and variability during freezing storage. Food Chem. 2012 Mar;131(1):328-36.
Association of Official Analytical Chemists International AOAC. AOAC Official Method 969.33 Fatty Acids in Oils and Fats Preparation of Methyl Esters Boron Trifluoride Method First Action 1969. In: AOAC OFFICIAL METHODS OF ANALYSIS. 1995. 17 p.
Association of Official Analytical Chemists International AOAC. AOAC Official Method 996.06 Fat (Total, Saturated, and Unsaturated) in Foods. In: AOAC OFFICIAL METHODS OF ANALYSIS. 2002.
ICH. Text on Validation of Analytical Procedures. Ich Harmon Tripart Guidel. 1994;(October).
Ortega L, García J, García T, Illera M, Juncadella M, Lizondo M, et al. VALIDACIÓN DE MÉTODOS ANALÍTICOS. Hewlett Pa. Barcelona, España: Asociación Española de Farmacéuticos de la Industria (AEFI); 2001.
Salcedo Sandoval L, Cofrades S, Ruiz Capillas C JCF. Effect of cooking method on the fatty acid content of reduced-fat and PUFA-enriched pork patties formulated with a konjac-based oil bulking system. Meat Sci. 2014;98(4):795-803.
Rubio-Rodríguez N, Beltrán S, Jaime I, de Diego SM, Sanz MT CJ. No TitleProduction of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid concentrates: A review. nnov Food Sci Emerg Technol. 2010;11(1):1-12.
Zhang H, Wang Z, Liu O. Development and validation of a GCFID method for quantitative analysis of oleic acid and related fatty acids. J Pharm Anal. 2015.
Juárez M, Juárez a., Aldai N, Avilés C PO. Validation of a gasliquid chromatographic method for analysing samples rich in long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids: Application to seafood. J Food Compos Anal. 2010;23(7):665-70.
Juárez M, Polvillo O, Contò M, Ficco a., Ballico S FS. Comparison of four extraction/methylation analytical methods to measure fatty acid composition by gas chromatography in meat. J Chromatogr A. 2008;1190(1-2):327-32.
Aldai N, Osoro K, Barrón LJR N a. I. Gas-liquid chromatographic method for analysing complex mixtures of fatty acids including conjugated linoleic acids (cis9trans11 and trans10cis12 isomers) and long-chain (n-3 or n-6) polyunsaturated fatty acids: Application to the intramuscular fat of bee. J Chromatogr A. 2006;1110(1-2):133-9.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2016 Vitae
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
Copyright Notice and Open Access Statement
The Journal Vitae works under the Open Access license, and the published manuscripts remain available for the public, both on the Journal's website and in databases, under the Creative Commons license, "Noncommercial Attribution" and "Share alike" systems, adopted in Colombia. Hence, when the authors agree to publish in the Journal Vitae, they will not have the right to economic retributions on publications and reproductions through different diffusion media. The documents are freely available to the internet public, permitting users to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts and pass them as data to software. The only constraint on reproduction and distribution, should be to give authors control over the integrity of their work and the right to be appropriately acknowledged and cited.
Authors declare that:
They are the intellectual property owners and are responsible for all the information stated in the article.
This manuscript has not been submitted or published in other printed or digital media. They accept the responsibility for the judgments, opinions, and points of view expressed in the published article and, therefore, they exonerate Universidad de Antioquia and Journal Vitae from any process.
They exempt Universidad de Antioquia and Journal Vitae from settling conflicts or disputes related to the authorship of the referred article.
They accept the revision of the original manuscript by suitable personnel, and they bind themselves to perform the corrections appointed or suggested by the assessors.
Therefore, they know the editorial process and will not bind the Editorial Board of the Journal to assume any obligations regarding the volume and issue in which the article is published.
They transfer the rights of publication, reprinting, and distribution of the article from the moment of its approval, in print and digital format, without the right to economic rewards, and under the licensing conditions considered relevant by Journal Vitae.
They fully authorize Universidad de Antioquia and Journal Vitae to submit the published material to the diverse databases and indexing systems where the Journal can be found to comply with the requirements of the regulatory authorities to maintain the national classification of journals.
They will assume the article publication costs established for the current issue, and they will make the payment as soon as they are informed about the volume and the issue in which the final version of the article is published.
After the article is published, you can share digital or printed copies in a noncommercial manner. You will be able to use the paper in your institution or company for educational or research purposes, including the use in course programs.
Conflict of interest: Authors are responsible for recognizing and disclosing any financial or other benefits that could be perceived to bias their work, acknowledging all financial support and any personal connections with potential sponsors. Examples of such conflicts include receiving research funds or honoraria, serving on advisory boards, stock ownership, or employment and consulting arrangements. Authors without such connections should clearly state that they have no financial support or personal relationships that could be perceived to bias their work. All conflicts of interest should be disclosed on the author's identification page of the manuscript.