Infección por el virus de la hepatitis A: epidemiología y diversidad genética

  • Paula Andrea Báez-Triana Universidad de Antioquia
  • María Cristina Navas-Navas Universidad de Antioquia
Palabras clave: Epidemiología, Hepatitis, Salud Pública, Virus de la Hepatitis A

Resumen

La infección por el virus de la hepatitis A es un problema global de salud pública. El virus está ampliamente distribuido y es la principal causa de hepatitis aguda de transmisión entérica en Latinoamérica. La partícula viral es estable en el medio ambiente y conserva su infectividad por varias semanas, lo que facilita su transmisión por agua y alimentos contaminados. Mundialmente se han descrito distintos patrones epidemiológicos, que pueden cambiar en el tiempo al modificarse variables socioeconómicas en la población como las condiciones sanitarias básicas y la vacunación. Esto deja al descubierto nuevas poblaciones susceptibles a la infección. En Latinoamérica se ha descrito la circulación del genotipo I y los subgenotipos A y B, pero se requieren más investigaciones que aporten el conocimiento necesario para gestionar planes de prevención y control para la disminución mundial de la prevalencia de la infección. Para este artículo se hizo una revisión de la literatura en las bases de datos SciELO, PubMed y ScienceDirect bajo los términos de búsqueda “Virus de la hepatitis A”, “Epidemiología”, “Seroprevalencia” e “Infección”. De los resultados obtenidos se incluyeron únicamente las publicaciones en inglés y español que describieran estudios epidemiológicos y moleculares de interés en Latinoamérica.

|Resumen
= 303 veces | PDF
= 191 veces|

Descargas

La descarga de datos todavía no está disponible.

Biografía del autor/a

Paula Andrea Báez-Triana, Universidad de Antioquia

Estudiante de Maestría. Grupo de Gastrohepatología, Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín, Colombia.

María Cristina Navas-Navas, Universidad de Antioquia

Profesora Asociada, Departamento de Microbiología y Parasitología, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Antioquia. Coordinadora, Grupo de Gastrohepatología, Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín, Colombia.

Citas

(1.) Tapia-Conyer R, Santos JI, Cavalcanti AM, Urdaneta E, Rivera L, Manterola A, et al. Hepatitis A in Latin America: a changing epidemiologic pattern. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1999 Nov;61(5):825–9.

(2.) Arguedas MR, Fallon MB. Hepatitis A. Curr Treat Options Gastroenterol. 2004 Jan;7(6):443–50.

(3.) Lavanchy D. Public health measures in the control of viral hepatitis: a World Health Organization perspective for the next millennium. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2002 Dec;17 Suppl:S452–9.

(4.) Cockayne EA. Catarrhal jaundice, sporadic and epidemic, and its relation to acute yellow atrophy of the liver. QJM. 1912 Oct;os6(1):1-29.

(5.) Cuthbert JA. Hepatitis A: old and new. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2001 Jan;14(1):38–58.

(6.) Nainan O V, Xia G, Vaughan G, Margolis HS. Diagnosis of hepatitis a virus infection: a molecular approach. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2006 Jan;19(1):63–79.

(7.) Jacobsen KH. The Global Prevalence of Hepatitis A Virus Infection and Susceptibility: A Systematic Review [Internet]. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2010. Available from: http://whqlibdoc.who.int/hq/2010/WHO_IVB_10.01_eng.pdf

(8.) Hollinger F, Emerson S. Hepatitis A Virus. In: Fields BN, Knipe DM, Howley PM, editors. Fields virology. 5th ed. Philadelphia: Williams & Wilkins; 2007.

(9.) Llorente-Molina D, Cedeño- Llorente S, Guzmán García J, Fuentes Príncipe PM. Actualidad en infecciones de transmisión sexual de etiología viral. Arch Med. 2009;5(2).

(10.) Deinhardt F, Holmes AW, Capps RB, Popper H. Studies on the transmission of human viral hepatitis to marmoset monkeys. I. Transmission of disease, serial passages, and description of liver lesions. J Exp Med. 1967 Apr;125(4):673–88.

(11.) OMS. Prevención y control de las hepatitis virales: marco para la acción mundial. Ginebra: Organiza-ción Mundial de la Salud; 2012.

(12.) Arauz-Ruiz P, Sundqvist L, García Z, Taylor L, Visoná K, Norder H, et al. Presumed common source out-breaks of hepatitis A in an endemic area confirmed by limited sequencing within the VP1 region. J Med Virol. 2001 Nov;65(3):449–56.

(13). OMS. Hepatitis A. World Health Organization; [cited 2014 Nov 21]; Available from: http://www.who.int/me-diacentre/factsheets/fs328/es/

(14.) Tanaka J. Hepatitis A shifting epidemiology in Latin America. Vaccine. 2000 Feb;18 Suppl 1:S57–60.

(15.) Instituto Nacional de Salud. Lineamiento Estratégi-co para la Introducción de la Vacuna contra la He-patitis A en el Esquema del Programa Ampliado de Inmunizaciones –PAI.Colombia 2013 [Internet]. Bo-gotá; 2013 p. 29. Disponible en: http://www.minsalud.gov.co/Documentos%20y%20Publicaciones/Linea-mientos%20estrat%C3%A9gicos%20para%20la%20Introducci%C3%B3n%20de%20la%20vacuna%20con-tra%20la%20Hepatitis%20A.pdf

(16.) Feinstone SM, Kapikian AZ, Purceli RH. Hepatitis A: detection by immune electron microscopy of a vi-ruslike antigen associated with acute illness. Science. 1973 Dec;182(4116):1026–8.

(17.) Provost PJ, Hilleman MR. Propagation of human he-patitis A virus in cell culture in vitro. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med. 1979 Feb;160(2):213–21.

(18.) Robertson BH, Jansen RW, Khanna B, Totsuka A, Nai-nan O V, Siegl G, et al. Genetic relatedness of hepatitis A virus strains recovered from different geographical regions. J Gen Virol. 1992 Jun;73 ( Pt 6):1365–77.

(19.) Cohen JI, Ticehurst JR, Purcell RH, Buckler-White A, Baroudy BM. Complete nucleotide sequence of wild-type hepatitis A virus: comparison with different stra-ins of hepatitis A virus and other picornaviruses. J Virol. 1987 Jan;61(1):50–9.

(20.) Jameel S, Aggarwal R. Tropical Infectious Diseases: Principles, Pathogens and Practice. In: Guerrant RL, Walker DH, Weller PF, editors. Tropical Infectious Di-seases: Principles, Pathogens and Practice. 13th ed. Elsevier; 2011. p. 420–6.

(21.) Weitz M, Baroudy BM, Maloy WL, Ticehurst JR, Purcell RH. Detection of a genome-linked protein (VPg) of hepatitis A virus and its comparison with other picor-naviral VPgs. J Virol. 1986 Oct;60(1):124–30.

(22.) Aguirre S, Malirat V, Scodeller E, Mattion N. First full-length genomic sequence of a hepatitis A vi-rus isolated in Argentina shows recombination between subgenotypes IA and IB. Virus Res. 2011 Jan;155(1):316–24.

(23.) Cristina J, Costa-Mattioli M. Genetic variability and molecular evolution of hepatitis A virus. Virus Res. 2007 Aug;127(2):151–7.

(24.) Debing Y, Neyts J, Thibaut HJ. Molecular biology and inhibitors of hepatitis A virus. Med Res Rev. 2014 Sep;34(5):895–917.

(25.) Feigelstock D, Thompson P, Mattoo P, Zhang Y, Ka-plan GG. The human homolog of HAVcr-1 codes for a hepatitis A virus cellular receptor. J Virol. 1998 Aug;72(8):6621–8.

(26.) Chigor VN, Okoh AI. Quantitative RT-PCR detection of hepatitis A virus, rotaviruses and enteroviruses in the Buffalo River and source water dams in the Eas-tern Cape Province of South Africa. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2012 Nov;9(11):4017–32.

(27.) Abad FX, Pintó RM, Bosch A. Survival of enteric viru-ses on environmental fomites. Appl Environ Micro-biol. 1994 Oct;60(10):3704–10.

(28.) Mbithi JN, Springthorpe VS, Sattar SA. Comparative in vivo efficiencies of hand-washing agents against hepatitis A virus (HM-175) and poliovirus type 1 (Sa-bin). Appl Environ Microbiol. 1993 Oct;59(10):3463–9.

(29.) Prado T, Fumian TM, Miagostovich MP, Gaspar AMC. Monitoring the hepatitis A virus in urban wastewa-ter from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2012 Feb;106(2):104–9.

(30.) Yanez LA, Lucero NS, Barril PA, Díaz MDP, Tenaglia MM, Spinsanti LI, et al. Evidence of hepatitis A vi-rus circulation in central Argentina: seroprevalence and environmental surveillance. J Clin Virol. 2014 Jan;59(1):38–43.

(31.) Appleton H, Banks M, Dentinger C, Chong GT. Food-borne viral hepatitis. In: Simjee S, editor. Foodborne diseases. New Jersey: Humana Press; 2007. p. 175–214.

(32.) Peterson DA, Hurley TR, Hoff JC, Wolfe LG. Effect of chlorine treatment on infectivity of hepatitis A virus. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1983 Jan;45(1):223–7.

(33.) Li JW, Xin ZT, Wang XW, Zheng JL, Chao FH. Mecha-nisms of inactivation of hepatitis A virus in water by chlorine dioxide. Water Res. 2004 Mar;38(6):1514–9.

(34.) Vaughan G, Xia G, Forbi JC, Purdy MA, Rossi LMG, Spradling PR, et al. Genetic relatedness among he-patitis A virus strains associated with food-borne out-breaks. PLoS One. 2013 Jan;8(11):e74546.

(35.) Rincón CJ, Rodríguez-Malagón N, Mariño C, Mojica JA, de la Hoz-Restrepo F. [Assessing the force of hepati-tis A virus infection in Colombia by applying catalytic models]. Rev Salud Publica (Bogota). 14(2):282–95.

(36.) Franco E, Meleleo C, Serino L, Sorbara D, Zaratti L. Hepatitis A: Epidemiology and prevention in develo-ping countries. World J Hepatol. 2012 Mar;4(3):68–73.

(37.) Gust ID. Epidemiological patterns of hepatitis A in di-fferent parts of the world. Vaccine. 1992 Jan;10 Suppl 1:S56–8.

(38.) Jacobsen KH, Wiersma ST. Hepatitis A virus seropre-valence by age and world region, 1990 and 2005. Va-ccine. 2010 Sep;28(41):6653–7.

(39.) Organización Mundial de la Salud. Vacunas contra la hepatitis A. Documento de posición de la OMS – Junio de 2012. Boletín epidemiológico Semanal [In-ternet]. 2012 Jul;87(28-29):261–76. Disponible en: http://www.who.int/immunization/position_papers/WER_Po-sition_Paper_HepatitisA_Spanish_Aug.2012.pdf

(40.) David AM. Hepatitis A outbreaks--methods of inter-vention in South-East Asian countries. Int J Infect Dis. 2004 Jul;8(4):201–9.

(41.) Ciocca M, Moreira-Silva SF, Alegría S, Galoppo MC, Ruttiman R, Porta G, et al. Hepatitis A as an etiologic agent of acute liver failure in Latin America. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2007 Aug;26(8):711–5.

(42.) Vitral CL, Ospina FLN, Artimos S, Melgaço JG, Cruz OG, de Paula VS, et al. Declining prevalence of he-patitis A virus antibodies among children from low socioeconomic groups reinforces the need for the implementation of hepatitis A vaccination in Brazil. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz. 2012 Aug;107(5):652–8.

(43.) Ljunggren KE, Patarroyo ME, Engle R, Purcell RH, Gerin JL. Viral hepatitis in Colombia: a study of the “hepatitis of the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta”. He-patology. 1985 Apr;5(2):299–304.

(44.) Vega M, Alvarez C, Arango AE, Yepes N, Sepúlveda E, Restrepo JC, et al. Frecuencia y distribución de anti-cuerpos positivos contra la hepatitis A. Acta Med Co-lomb. 2003;28(2):71-75.

(45.) Moreno S, Alvarado MV, Bermúdez A, Gutiérrez MF. Análisis filogenético de las cepas de rotavirus y vi-rus de la hepatitis A encontradas en agua de consu-mo en el municipio de Quibdó, Chocó. Biomédica. 2009;(29):209–17.

(46.) Peláez D, Rodríguez JA, Rocha EL, Rey GJ. Estandari-zación de un método de concentración y detección de virus entéricos en aguas de consumo. Biomédica. 2010;30(2):276-86.

(47.) Instituto Nacional de Salud. Protocolo de Vigilancia en Salud Pública. Hepatitis A [Internet]. Bogotá; 2014 p. 32. Disponible en: http://www.ins.gov.co/lineas-de-accion/Subdireccion-Vigilancia/sivigila/Protocolos SIVIGILA/PRO Hepatitis A.pdf

(48.) Ott JJ, Irving G, Wiersma ST. Long-term protective effects of hepatitis A vaccines. A systematic review. Vaccine. 2012;31(1):3-11.

(49.) Rico-Hesse R, Pallansch MA, Nottay BK, Kew OM. Geographic distribution of wild poliovirus type 1 ge-notypes. Virology. 1987 Oct;160(2):311–22.

(50.) Joshi MS, Walimbe AM, Chitambar SD. Evaluation of genomic regions of hepatitis A virus for phylogenetic analysis: Suitability of the 2C region for genotyping. J Virol Methods. 2008 Oct;153(1):36–42.

(51.) Desbois D, Couturier E, Mackiewicz V, Graube A, Le-tort M-J, Dussaix E, et al. Epidemiology and genetic characterization of hepatitis A virus genotype IIA. J Clin Microbiol. 2010 Sep;48(9):3306–15.

(52.) Holmes AW, Deinhardt F, Wolfe L, Froesner G, Pater-son D, Casto B, et al. Specific neutralization of human hepatitis type A in marmoset monkeys. Nature. 1973 Jun;243(5407):419–20.

(53.) Theamboonlers A, Abe K, Thongmee C, Poovorawan Y. Complete coding sequence and molecular analysis of hepatitis A virus from a chimpanzee with fulmi-nant hepatitis. J Med Primatol. 2012 Feb;41(1):11–7.

(54.) Nainan O V, Margolis HS, Robertson BH, Balayan M, Brinton MA. Sequence analysis of a new hepatitis A virus naturally infecting cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis). J Gen Virol. 1991 Jul;72 ( Pt 7): 1685–9.

(55.) Tsarev SA, Emerson SU, Balayan MS, Ticehurst J, Pur-cell RH. Simian hepatitis A virus (HAV) strain AGM-27: comparison of genome structure and growth in cell culture with other HAV strains. J Gen Virol. 1991 Jul;72 ( Pt 7):1677–83.

(56.) Endo K, Takahashi M, Masuko K, Inoue K, Akahane Y, Okamoto H. Full-length sequences of subgenotype IIIA and IIIB hepatitis A virus isolates: characteriza-tion of genotype III HAV genomes. Virus Res. 2007 Jun;126(1-2):116–27.

(57.) Jansen RW, Siegl G, Lemon SM. Molecular epide-miology of human hepatitis A virus defined by an antigen-capture polymerase chain reaction method. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1990 Apr;87(8):2867–71.

(58.) Hutin YJ, Pool V, Cramer EH, Nainan O V, Weth J, Wi-lliams IT, et al. A multistate, foodborne outbreak of hepatitis A. National Hepatitis A Investigation Team. N Engl J Med. 1999 Feb 25;340(8):595–602.

(59.) Costa-Mattioli M, Cristina J, Romero H, Perez-Bercof R, Casane D, Colina R, et al. Molecular evolution of hepatitis A virus: a new classification based on the complete VP1 protein. J Virol. 2002 Sep;76(18):9516–25.

(60). Bosch A, González-Dankaart JF, Haro I, Gajardo R, Pé-rez JA, Pintó RM. A new continuous epitope of hepa-titis A virus. J Med Virol. 1998 Feb;54(2):95–102.

(61.) Sulbaran Y, Gutierrez CR, Marquez B, Rojas D, San-chez D, Navas J, et al. Hepatitis A virus genetic diversi-ty in Venezuela: exclusive circulation of subgenotype IA and evidence of quasispecies distribution in the isolates. J Med Virol. 2010 Nov;82(11):1829–34.

(62.) Worobey M, Holmes EC. Evolutionary aspects of re-combination in RNA viruses. J Gen Virol. 1999 Oct;80 ( Pt 10):2535–43.

(63.) Costa-Mattioli M, Ferré V, Casane D, Perez-Bercoff R, Coste-Burel M, Imbert-Marcille BM, et al. Evidence of recombination in natural populations of hepatitis A virus. Virology. 2003 Jun;311(1):51–9.

(64.) Lemon SM, Murphy PC, Shields PA, Ping LH, Feins-tone SM, Cromeans T, et al. Antigenic and genetic variation in cytopathic hepatitis A virus variants ari-sing during persistent infection: evidence for genetic recombination. J Virol. 1991 Apr;65(4):2056–65.

(65.) Betancourt WQ, Querales L, Sulbaran YF, Rodriguez-Diaz J, Caraballo L, Pujol FH. Molecular characteri-zation of sewage-borne pathogens and detection of sewage markers in an urban stream in Caracas, Venezuela. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2010 Mar;76(6): 2023–6.

(66.) Lu L, Ching KZ, de Paula VS, Nakano T, Siegl G, Weitz M, et al. Characterization of the complete genomic sequence of genotype II hepatitis A virus (CF53/Berne isolate). J Gen Virol. 2004 Oct;85(Pt 10):2943–52.

(67.) Chitambar S, Joshi M, Lole K, Walimbe A, Vaidya S. Cocirculation of and coinfections with hepatitis A vi-rus subgenotypes IIIA and IB in patients from Pune, western India. Hepatol Res. 2007 Feb;37(2):85–93.

(68.) Costa-Mattioli M, Di Napoli A, Ferré V, Billaudel S, Pe-rez-Bercoff R, Cristina J. Genetic variability of hepati-tis A virus. J Gen Virol. 2003 Dec;84(Pt 12):3191–201.

Publicado
2015-04-09
Cómo citar
1.
Báez-Triana PA, Navas-Navas MC. Infección por el virus de la hepatitis A: epidemiología y diversidad genética. Iatreia [Internet]. 9 de abril de 2015 [citado 20 de septiembre de 2021];28(2):Pág. 157-169. Disponible en: https://revistas.udea.edu.co/index.php/iatreia/article/view/18137
Sección
Artículos de revisión