Surgimiento de los micro-RNA como biomarcadores potenciales en diversas enfermedades

  • José Vicente Forero-Forero Universidad del Valle, Cali, Colombia.
  • Laura Yuriko González-Teshima Universidad del Valle, Cali, Colombia.
  • Ana María Cabal-Herrera Universidad del Valle, Cali, Colombia.
  • Julián Ramírez-Cheyne Universidad del Valle, Cali, Colombia.
  • Andrés Castillo-Giraldo Universidad del Valle. Cali, Colombia.
Palabras clave: Enfermedades Cardiovasculares, Hepatopatías, Marcadores Biológicos, MicroARN, Neoplasias

Resumen

El objetivo de esta revisión es evidenciar el potencial de los micro-RNA (mi-RNA) como biomarcadores en diferentes enfermedades. Los mi-RNA son ácidos nucleicos de ≈ 22 nucleótidos que regulan la traducción de RNA mensajeros (mRNA) codificantes y producen una regulación postranscripcional de la expresión génica. La mayoría de ellos son altamente conservados y tienen una distribución tisular específica, de manera que juegan un papel importante como reguladores de la función celular y la fisiopatología de los diferentes órganos del cuerpo humano. Los mi-RNA surgen como candidatos para ser biomarcadores debido a que se han encontrado cambios en su expresión en diversas enfermedades (cáncer, daño hepático y cardiopatías), con alteración de sus niveles en plasma, suero, orina y saliva. Sin embargo, aunque algunos presentan consistencia en su perfil de expresión, otros han sido reportados como posibles candidatos para más de una enfermedad, lo que limita su especificidad y su utilidad diagnóstica. Es pertinente hacer nuevos estudios que ahonden sobre su significado en procesos patológicos y sobre su papel como posibles biomarcadores.

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Biografía del autor/a

José Vicente Forero-Forero, Universidad del Valle, Cali, Colombia.
Estudiante de Medicina y Cirugía, Universidad del Valle, Cali, Colombia.
Laura Yuriko González-Teshima, Universidad del Valle, Cali, Colombia.
Estudiante de Medicina y Cirugía, Universidad del Valle, Cali, Colombia.
Ana María Cabal-Herrera, Universidad del Valle, Cali, Colombia.
Estudiante de Medicina y Cirugía, Universidad del Valle, Cali, Colombia.
Julián Ramírez-Cheyne, Universidad del Valle, Cali, Colombia.
Médico. Profesor del Departamento de Morfología, Facultad de Salud, Universidad del Valle, Cali, Colombia.
Andrés Castillo-Giraldo, Universidad del Valle. Cali, Colombia.
Profesor del Departamento de Biología, Facultad de Ciencias Naturales y Exactas, Universidad del Valle. Cali, Colombia.

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Publicado
2016-07-01
Sección
Artículos de revisión