Analysis and characterization of PV module defects by thermographic inspection
Keywords:Photovoltaic energy, Photovoltaic efficiency, Thermography, Thermal inspection, Module anomalies
Being able to detect, to identify and to quantify the severity of defects that appear within photovoltaic modules is essential to constitute a reliable, efficient and safety system, avoiding energy losses, mismatches and safety issues. The main objective of this paper is to perform an in-depth, onsite study of 17,142 monocrystalline modules to detect every single existing defect, classifying them in different groups, studying the variance of the same kind of defect in different modules and the patterns of each group of thermal defects. Results can be useful in a subsequent development of a software to automatically detect if a module has an anomaly and its classification. Focusing on the results obtained, all faults detected have been classified in five different thermographic defects modes: hotspot in a cell, bypass circuit overheated, hotspot in the junction box, hotspot in the connection of the busbar to the junction box and whole module overheated. An analysis of patterns of the different defects is included, studiyng location within the module, size and temperature statistical results, as average temperature, standard deviation, maximum temperature, median and first and third quartile.
S.Pellicerand etal. ,“Aglobalperspectiveofsmartcities: Asurvey,” in 2013 Seventh International Conference on Innovative Mobile and Internet Services in Ubiquitous Computing , July 2013, pp. 439–444.
M.Battyand etal. ,“Smartcitiesofthefuture,” TheEuropeanPhysical Journal Special Topics , vol. 214, no. 1, pp. 481–518, Nov. 2012.
REN21, “Renewables 2018, global status report,” REN21, Paris, France, Tech. Rep., 2018.
W. L. Kling and J. Myrzik, “Energy efficiency in smart cities,” in 2013 IEEE Power Energy Society General Meeting , Jul. 2013, pp. 1–5.
M.Castro,A.J.Jara,andA.F.G.Skarmeta,“Smartlightingsolutions for smart cities,” in 2013 27 th International Conference on Advanced Information Networking and Applications Workshops , Mar. 2013, pp. 1374–1379.
M. Anda and J. Temmen, “Smart metering for residential energy efficiency: The use of community based social marketing for behaviouralchangeandsmartgridintroduction,” RenewableEnergy , vol. 67, pp. 119–127, Jul. 2014, renewable Energy for Sustainable Development and Decarbonisation.
J. B. Banu and M. B. Moses, “Iot based augmented perturb-and-observe soft switching boost converters for photovoltaic power systems in smart cities,” Wireless Personal Communications , vol. 102, no. 4, pp. 2619–2641, Oct. 2018.
G. C. Konstantopoulos and A. T. Alexandridis, “Non-linear voltage regulator design for dc/dc boost converters used in photovoltaic applications: analysis and experimental results,” IET Renewable Power Generation , vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 296–308, May 2013.
K. Ishaque, Z. Salam, and Syafaruddin, “A comprehensive matlab simulink pv system simulator with partial shading capability based ontwo-diodemodel,” SolarEnergy ,vol.85,no.9,pp.2217–2227,Sep. 2011.
S. Gallardo-Saavedra and B. Karlsson, “Simulation, validation and analysis of shading effects on a pv system,” Solar Energy , vol. 170, pp. 828–839, Aug. 2018.
P. Cancelliere and C. Liciotti, “Fire behaviour and performance of photovoltaic module backsheets,” Fire Technology , vol. 52, no. 2, pp. 333–348, Mar. 2016.
J. K. Mathew, J. Kuitche, and G. TamizhMani, “Test-to-failure of pv modules: Hotspot testing,” in 2010 35 th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference , Jun. 2010, pp. 002839–002843.
S. Gallardo, L. Hernández, and O. Duque, “Technological review of the instrumentation used in aerial thermographic inspection of photovoltaic plants,” Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews , vol. 93, pp. 566–579, Oct. 2018.
M. Aghaei, A. Gandelli, F. Grimaccia, S. Leva, and R. E. Zich, “Ir real-time analyses for pv system monitoring by digital image processing techniques,” in 2015 International Conference on Event-based Control, Communication, and Signal Processing (EBCCSP) , Jun. 2015, pp. 1–6.
S. Dotenco and et al. , “Automatic detection and analysis of photovoltaic modules in aerial infrared imagery,”in 2016IEEEWinter Conference on Applications of Computer Vision (WACV) , Jun. 2016, pp. 1–9.
J. A. Tsanakas, L. D. Ha, and F. A. Shakarchi, “Advanced inspection of photovoltaic installations by aerial triangulation and terrestrial georeferencing of thermal/visual imagery,” Renewable Energy , vol. 102, pp. 224–233, Mar. 2017.
S. Gallardo-Saavedra, L. Hernández-Callejo, and O. Duque-Perez, “Image resolution influence in aerial thermographic inspections of photovoltaic plants,” IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics , vol. 14, no. 12, pp. 5678–5686, Dec. 2018.
S. Gallardo, L. Hernández, and O. Duque, “Analysis and characterization of thermographic defects at the pv module level,” in Ibero-American Congress on Information Management and Big Data , 2018, pp. 80–93.
M. Dhimish, V. Holmes, B. Mehrdadi, M. Dales, and P. Mather, “Output-power enhancement for hot spotted polycrystalline photovoltaic solar cells,” IEEE Transactions on Device and Materials Reliability , vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 37–45, Mar. 2018.
T. Ghanbari, “Hot spot detection and prevention using a simple method in photovoltaic panels,” IET Generation, Transmission Distribution , vol. 11, no. 4, pp. 883–890, 2017.
J. A. Tsanakas, L. Ha, and C. Buerhop, “Faults and infrared thermographic diagnosis in operating c-si photovoltaic modules: A review of research and future challenges,” Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews , vol. 62, pp. 695–709, Sep. 2016.
A. Morlier, F. Haase, and M. Köntges, “Impact of cracks in multicrystalline silicon solar cells on pv module power—a simulation study based on field data,” IEEE Journal of Photovoltaics , vol. 5, no. 6, pp. 1735–1741, Nov. 2015.
International Energy Agency Photovoltaic Power Systems Programme, “Review on infrared and electroluminescence imaging for pv field applications,” International Energy Agency, Tech. Rep. IEA-PVPS T13-10:2018, Mar. 2018.
M. Köntges, S. Kajari, and I. Kunze, “Crack statistic for wafer-based siliconsolarcellmodulesinthefieldmeasuredbyuvfluorescence,” IEEE Journal of Photovoltaics , vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 95–101, Jan. 2013.
F. Giordano, E. Petrolati, T. M. Brown, A. Reale, and A. Di Carlo, “Series-connection designs for dye solar cell modules,” IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices , vol. 58, no. 8, pp. 2759–2764, Aug. 2011.
K. Niazi, H. A. Khan, and F. Amir, “Hot-spot reduction and shade loss minimization in crystalline-silicon solar panels,” Journal of Renewable and Sustainable Energy , vol. 10, no. 3, p. 033506, 2018.
P.Guerriero, P.Tricoli, andS.Daliento, “Abypasscircuitforavoiding thehotspotinpvmodules,” SolarEnergy ,vol.181,pp.430–438,2019.
E. Romero and et al. , “Grid-connected photovoltaic generation plants: Components and operation,” IEEE Industrial Electronics Magazine , vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 6–20, Sep. 2013.
(2018) Pv busbar. The PV Connect. Accessed Jul. 12, 2018. [Online]. Available: www.thepvconnect.com/photo-voltaic-busbar/
B. L. Sopori, “Structural defects in laser crystallized silicon ribbons and their influence on photovoltaic behaviourf,” Journal of Electronic Materials , vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 517–539, May 1981.
A. Mäki and S. Valkealahti, “Power losses in long string and parallel-connected short strings of series-connected silicon-based photovoltaic modules due to partial shading conditions,” IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion , vol. 27, no. 1, pp. 173–183, Mar. 2012.
M. M. Rahman, M. Hasanuzzaman, and N. A. Rahim, “Effects of various parameters on pv-module power and efficiency,” Energy Conversion and Management , vol. 103, pp. 348–58, Oct. 2015.
P. Manganiello, M. Balato, and M. Vitelli, “A survey on mismatching and aging of pv modules: The closed loop,” IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics , vol. 62, no. 11, pp. 7276–7286, Apr. 2015.
L.YixianandA.A.O.Tay,“Finiteelementthermalstressanalysisofa solar photovoltaic module,” in 2011 37 th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference , Seattle, USA, 2011, pp. 3179–3184.
D. Grzechca, P. Rybka, and S. Temich, “Module’s overheating assessment with the use of supply current waveform analysis,” IFAC-PapersOnLine , vol. 51, no. 6, pp. 306–311, 2018, 15 th IFAC Conference on Programmable Devices and Embedded Systems PDeS 2018.
R. Schacht and et al. , “Miniaturized black body radiator for ir-detector calibration — design and development,” in 2010 16 th International Workshop on Thermal Investigations of ICs and Systems (THERMINIC) , Oct. 2010, pp. 1–5.
I. E. A. photovoltaic power systems programme, “Review of failures of photovoltaic modules,” International Energy Agency, Tech. Rep. IEA-PVPS T13-01:2014, 2014.
K. A. Kim and P. T. Krein, “Reexamination of photovoltaic hot spotting to show inadequacy of the bypass diode,” IEEE Journal of Photovoltaics , vol. 5, no. 5, pp. 1435–1441, Sep. 2015.
A. Pandian, K. Bansal, D. J. Thiruvadigal, and S. Sakthivel, “Fire hazards and overheating caused by shading faults on photo voltaic solar panel,” Fire Technology , vol. 52, no. 2, pp. 349–364, Mar. 2016.
How to Cite
Revista Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad de Antioquia is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution BY-NC-SA 4.0 license. The material published in the journal can be distributed, copied and exhibited by third parties if the respective credits are given to the journal. No commercial benefit can be obtained and derivative works must be under the same license terms as the original work.