Determination of ochratoxin a in coffee by ELISA method and its relationship with the physical, physicochemical and microbiological properties

  • Robinson Monsalve-Atencio Universidad de Antioquia. https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5113-4637
  • Karolay Sanchez Universidad de Antioquia.
  • Jairo Camaño Universidad de Antioquia.
  • Seneida Lopera-Cardona Universidad de Antioquia
  • Blanca Ortiz-Reyes Universidad de Antioquia.
Keywords: Soluble coffee, Ochratoxin A, ELISA, Principal Component Analysis, Ground roasted coffee, Coffee

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Coffee is one of the most consumed beverages in the world; however, it may contain toxic compounds such as ochratoxin A (OTA). OBJECTIVES: Determine the OTA’s presence in different types of coffee, intended for beverage preparation and marketed in Colombia through the application of the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and analyze its relationship with the physical, physicochemical and microbiological properties. METHODS: 8 samples of coffee commercialized in the Colombian market were selected, in which the OTA content was determined by applying the ELISA method. Likewise, a microbiological analysis was performed, and physicochemical properties were determined, such as moisture content, aw, percentage total dissolved solids (%TDS), and extraction yield (%EY). Physical properties such as free-flow densities, compacted bulk densities (CBD), porosity, average particle size (ASP), and color. The data were treated with multivariate analysis using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Cluster Analysis (CA) to quantitatively investigate the relationships between the coffee samples concerning their physical, physicochemical properties, and OTA content. LSD test was applied with a significance level of 95 % and Pearson correlation test. RESULTS: All the samples had OTA content, but only 2 exceeded the limits allowed by the regulations, with a maximum value of 15.449 µg/Kg, which represents 31.449 % of the tolerable daily intake according to the parameters defined by Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA). According to the PCA and CA, the samples were grouped harmonically according to the type of coffee associated with its commercial presentation and industrial process, OTA content, and ASP. OTA content was significantly and positively correlated (p < 0.05) with %EY, %TDS, ASP, porosity, CBD, and moisture. CONCLUSIONS: The coffees marketed in Colombia showed a variable range of OTA, where soluble coffees had higher OTA contents than roasted coffees, and 25 % of the coffees analyzed do not meet the levels defined by Colombian regulations. The OTA content in coffee is related to properties that define the ability to extract solutes from coffee.

|Abstract
= 162 veces | PDF
= 147 veces|

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Author Biographies

Robinson Monsalve-Atencio, Universidad de Antioquia.

Department of Food, Faculty of Pharmaceutical and Food Sciences

Karolay Sanchez, Universidad de Antioquia.

Department of Food, Faculty of Pharmaceutical and Food Sciences

Jairo Camaño, Universidad de Antioquia.

Department of Food, Faculty of Pharmaceutical and Food Sciences,

Seneida Lopera-Cardona, Universidad de Antioquia

DSc. MSc. Profesora. Investigadora. Departamento de Alimentos, Facultad de Ciencias Farmacéuticas y Alimentarias, Universidad de Antioquia. Medellín, Colombia.

Blanca Ortiz-Reyes, Universidad de Antioquia.

Faculty of Medicine, Cell Immunology and Immunogenetics Group

References

Folmer B, Farah A, Jones L, Fogliano V. Human Wellbeing—Sociability, Performance, and Health. In: Former B, editor. The Craft and Science of Coffee. Academic Press; 2017. Chapter 20. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-803520-7.00020-7

Malir F, Ostry V, Pfohl-Leszkowicz A, Malir J, Toman J. Ochratoxin A: 50 years of research. Toxins. 2016; 8(7): 191. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins8070191

García-Moraleja A, Font G, Mañes J, Ferrer E. Development of a new method for the simultaneous determination of 21 mycotoxins in coffee beverages by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Food Res Int. 2015; 72: 247–55. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2015.02.030

Vieira T, Cunha S, Casal S. Mycotoxins in Coffee. In: Preedy, editor. Coffee in Health and Disease Prevention. San Diego: Academic Press; 2015. Chapter 25. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-409517-5.00025-5

Gamboa-Gaitán MÁ. Presence of Aspergillus and other fungal symbionts in coffee beans from Colombia. Acta Biológica Colomb. 2012;17(1): 39–50.}

Cabañes FJ, Bragulat MR. Black aspergilli and ochratoxin A-producing species in foods. Curr Opin food Sci. 2018; 23: 1–10. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cofs.2018.01.006

Kulahi A, Kabak B. A preliminary assessment of dietary exposure of ochratoxin A in Central Anatolia Region, Turkey. Mycotoxin Res. 2020; 36: 327–337. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s12550-020-00397-6

Leitão AL. Occurrence of Ochratoxin A in Coffee: Threads and Solutions—A Mini-Review. Beverages. 2019; 5(2): 36. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages5020036

Federación Nacional de Cafeteros. Informe Gerente General. 86 Congreso General de Cafeteros. https://federaciondecafeteros.org/app/uploads/2019/12/Informe-del-Gerente-al-87-Congreso-Nacional-de-Cafeteros-2019.pdf. 2018. (accessed 26 May 2021)

Federación Nacional de Cafeteros. Informe Gerente General. 85 Congreso Nacional de Cafeteros. https://educafeseducacioncafetera.files.wordpress.com/2017/12/caficultor-informacion-congreso-cafetero-2017.pdf. 2017. (accessed 26 May 2021)

Ministerio de salud y Protección y protección Social. Resolución 4506 de 2013. Por la cual se establecen los niveles máximos de contaminantes en los alimentos destinados al consumo humano y se dictan otras disposiciones. Santafé de Bogotá, D.C.: Ministerio de salud y Protección y protección Social. 2013.

European Commission. Commission Regulation (EU) No 105/2010 of 5 February 2010 amending Regulation (EC) No 1881/2006 setting maximum levels for certain contaminants in foodstuffs as regards ochratoxin A. In: Official Journal of the European Union. 2010. p. 7–8.

Contreras-Calderón J, Mejía-Díaz D, Martínez-Castaño M, Bedoya-Ramírez D, López-Rojas N, Gómez-Narváez F, et al. Evaluation of antioxidant capacity in coffees marketed in Colombia: Relationship with the extent of non-enzymatic browning. Food Chem. 2016; 209: 162–70. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2016.04.038

Xiong Y, Leng Y, Li X, Huang X, Xiong Y. Emerging strategies to enhance the sensitivity of competitive ELISA for detection of chemical contaminants in food samples. TrAC Trends Anal Chem. 2020; 126: 115861. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.trac.2020.115861

Fadlalla MH, Ling S, Wang R, Li X, Yuan J, Xiao S, et al. Development of ELISA and lateral flow immunoassays for ochratoxins (OTA and OTB) detection dased on monoclonal antibody. Front Cell Infect Microbiol. 2020;10: 80. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3389/fcimb.2020.00080

Vieira T, Cunha S, Casal S. Analysis of the Mycotoxin Ochratoxin A in Coffee. In: Preedy VR, editor. Coffee in Health and Disease Prevention. Academic Press; 2015. Chapter 112. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-409517-5.00112-1

Dohnal V, Dvořák V, Malíř F, Ostrý V, Roubal T. A comparison of ELISA and HPLC methods for determination of ochratoxin A in human blood serum in the Czech Republic. Food Chem Toxicol. 2013; 62: 427–31. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2013.09.010

Zheng Z, Hanneken J, Houchins D, King RS, Lee P, Richard JL. Validation of an ELISA test kit for the detection of ochratoxin A in several food commodities by comparison with HPLC. Mycopathologia. 2005;159(2): 265–72. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11046-004-8663-3

Franco H, Vega A, Reyes S, De León J, Bonilla A. Niveles de Ocratoxina A y Aflatoxinas totales en cafés de exportación de Panamá por un método de ELISA. Arch Latinoam Nutr. 2014; 64(1): 42–9.

Guzmán EMQ, Guerrero FA, Chaves JA. Determinación de ocratoxina A en plasma humano y en café de Costa Rica por un método de ELISA. Arch Latinoam Nutr. 2007; 57(2): 168–72.

R-Biopharm GmbH. Column Immunoaffinity column for sample clean up prior to analysis of ochratoxin A. RIDA® Ochratoxin A. Art. No.: R1303. https://r-biopharm.com. (accessed 26 May 2021)

Biopharm GmbH. Enzyme inmmunoassay for quantitative analysis of Ochratoxin A. A 30/15 Art N°R1311. https://r-biopharm.com/. (accessed 26 May 2021)

Ruiz Márquez AF, Pazmiño-Arteaga JD, Pérez YL, Gallardo Cabrera C, Hernández Arcia YM. Estudio de estabilidad acelerado en café verde: una aproximación sensorial. Rev Lasallista Investig. 2019;16(1):93–102. DOI: https://doi.org/10.22507/rli.v16n1a13

Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC). Official Methods of Analysis of the 18th International AOAC. Horwitz W, Latimer, G. W. J, editors. Gaithersburg: AOAC; 2005.

Yüksel AN, Özkara Barut KT, Bayram M. The effects of roasting, milling, brewing and storage processes on the physicochemical properties of Turkish coffee. LWT. 2020; 131: 109711. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2020.109711

Stokes CN, O’Sullivan MG, Kerry JP. Hedonic and descriptive sensory evaluation of instant and fresh coffee products. Eur Food Res Technol. 2017; 243(2): 331–40. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00217-016-2747-4

Instituto Colombiano de Normas Técnicas y Certificación. NTC4602-1. Determinación del rendimiento de la extracción y de los sólidos solubles en la bebida de café, parte I: método de goteo. Bogotá; 1999.

Instituto Colombiano de Normas Técnicas y Certificación. NTC 4912-1. Café soluble. Determinación de la densidad por caída libre y compactación. Bogotá; 2016.

Sahin S, Sumnu SG. Size, Shape, Volume, and Related Physical Attributes. In: Physical Properties of Foods Food Science Text Series. New York, NY: Springer; 2006. Chapter 1. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/0-387-30808-3_1

Instituto Colombiano de Normas Técnicas y Certificación. Café tostado y molido. Método para la determinación del tamaño promedio de partícula por distribución granulométrica. NTC 2441. Bogotá; 2011.

Instituto Colombiano de Normas Técnicas y Certificación. Café instantáneo (soluble). NTC 4159. Bogotá; 2015.

Instituto Colombiano de Normas Técnicas y Certificación. Café tostado, en grano o molido. NTC 3435. Bogotá; 2012.

Sun Z, Duan Z, Liu X, Deng X, Tang Z. Development of a nanobody-based competitive dot ELISA for visual screening of Ochratoxin A in cereals. Food Anal Methods. 2017; 10(11): 3558–64. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s12161-017-0915-1

Babu SC, Sanyal P. Indicators and causal factors of nutrition – application of correlation analysis. In: Suresh C. Babu, Shailendra N. Gajanan and Prabuddha Sanyal, editors. Food Security, Poverty and Nutrition Policy Analysis. San Diego: Academic Press; 2014. Chapter 8. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-405864-4.00008-9

Blanc M, Pittet A, Muñoz-Box R, Viani R. Behavior of Ochratoxin A during Green Coffee Roasting and Soluble Coffee Manufacture. J Agric Food Chem. 1998; 46(2): 673–5. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1021/jf9707703

Diaz GJ, Ariza D, Perilla NS. Method validation for the determination of ochratoxin A in green and soluble coffee by immunoaffinity column cleanup and liquid chromatography. Mycotoxin Res. 2004; 20(2): 59–67. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02946736

Galarce-Bustos O, Alvarado M, Vega M, Aranda M. Occurrence of ochratoxin A in roasted and instant coffees in Chilean market. Food Control. 2014; 46: 102–7. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodcont.2014.05.014

Quijano J, Lopez J. El consumo de café en Medellín desde la perspectiva del comportamiento del consumidor. EIA. 2010; 6(3): 145–57.}

EFSA. Opinion of the scientific panel on contaminants in the food chain on a request from the commission related to ochratoxin A in food. EFSA J. 2006; 365: 1–56. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2903/j.efsa.2006.365

JECFA. Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA): Evaluation of certain mycotoxins in food. 2002. Rome: FAO.

Castaño J, Quintero G, León V. Caracterización de rendimiento de extracción y el contenido de sólidos solubles en la bebida de café. Cenicafe. 2000; 51(3): 185–95.

Cordoba N, Fernandez-Alduenda M, Moreno FL, Ruiz Y. Coffee extraction: A review of parameters and their influence on the physicochemical characteristics and flavour of coffee brews. Trends Food Sci Technol. 2020; 96: 45–60. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tifs.2019.12.004

Published
2021-05-22
How to Cite
Monsalve-Atencio R., Sanchez K., Camaño J., Lopera-Cardona S., & Ortiz-Reyes B. (2021). Determination of ochratoxin a in coffee by ELISA method and its relationship with the physical, physicochemical and microbiological properties. Vitae, 28(2). https://doi.org/10.17533/udea.vitae.v28n2a343838
Section
Foods: Science, Engineering and Technology