Voltammetric Determination of Ascorbic Acid in Pharmaceutical Formulations Using Modified Iodine-Coated Platinum Electrode
Background: Despite the high reactivity of the platinum electrode, the iodine-coated platinum electrode shows obvious inertness toward adsorption and surface processes. For that, iodine-coated platinum electrodes accommodate themselves to interesting voltammetric applications. Objectives: This study reports using the modified iodine-coated polycrystalline platinum electrode as a voltammetric sensor for ascorbic acid determination in pharmaceutical formulations. Methods: The developed voltammetric method based on recording cyclic voltammograms of ascorbic acid at iodine-coated electrode The optimized experimental parameters for the determination of ascorbic acid were using 0.1 M KCl as a supporting electrolyte with a scan rate of 50mV/s. Results: The anodic peak related to ascorbic acid oxidation was centered at nearly 0.28V. An excellent and extended linear dependence of the oxidative peak current on the concentration of ascorbic acid was observed in the range 2.84x10-3 - 5.68 mM. The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantitation (LOQ) were 1.0 µM and 3.01 µM, respectively, attesting to the method’s sensitivity. The investigation for the effect of potential interference from multivitamin tablet ingredients (vitamins B1, B6, B12, folic acid, citric acid, sucrose, glucose, and zinc) indicated specific selectivity toward ascorbic acid and the absence of any electrochemical response toward these components. Recovery results in the range 98.93±2.78 - 99.98±5.20 for spiked standard ascorbic acid in pharmaceutical formulations further confirmed the potential applicability of the developed method for the determination of ascorbic acid in real samples. Conclusions: The developed method was successfully applied to the analysis of ascorbic acid (vitamin C), and the obtained results were in good agreement with the labeled values; besides, the statistical tests indicated no significant difference at p=0.05 with a 95% confidence level.
Pisoschi AM, Danet AF, Kalinowski S. Ascorbic acid determination in commercial fruit juice samples by cyclic voltammetry. J Autom Methods Manag Chem. 2008; 2008:1-8 https://doi.org/10.1155/2008/937651
Chambial S, Dwivedi S, Shukla KK, John PJ, Sharma P. Vitamin C in disease prevention and cure: An Overview. Indian Journal of Clinical Biochemistry.2013; 28(4), 314–328.
Perry M, Page N, Manthey D, Zavitz J. Scurvy: Dietary Discretion in a developed country. Clinical Practice and Cases in Emergency Medicine. 2018; 2(2): 147–150. https://doi.org/10.5811/cpcem.2018.1.36860
Naidu KA. Vitamin C in human health and disease is still a mystery? An overview. Nutrition Journal. 2003; 2:1-10. https://doi.org/10.1186/1475-2891-2-7.
Hu L, Li L, Luo Z, Yang J, Liu W. Determination of trace vitamin C by ion-pair HPLC with UV detection in calcium gluconate and vitamin C compound oral solution. Journal of Chromatographic Science.2012; 50(2):102–107. https://doi.org/10.1093/chromsci/bmr035
Gazdik Z, Zitka O, Petrlova J, Adam V, Zehnalek J, Horna A, Reznicek V, Beklova M, Kizek, R. Determination of vitamin C (Ascorbic Acid) using high performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrochemical detection. Sensors.2008; 8(11): 7097–7112. https://doi.org/10.3390/s8117097
Shrestha N, Shrestha S, Bhattarai A. Determination of ascorbic acid in different citrus fruits of Kathmandu Valley. Journal of medical and Biological Science Research. 2016; 2(1):9-14.
Anal PD, Shuchi, D. UV spectroscopic method for determination of vitamin C(ascorbic acid) content in different fruits in south Gujarat Region. International Journal of Environmental Sciences & Natural Resources. 2019; 21(2):41-44. https://doi.org/10.19080/IJESNR.2019.21.556056.
Mirsad S, Amra S. Spectrophotometric determination of L-ascorbic Acid in pharmaceutical based on its oxidation by potassium peroxymonosulfate and hydrogen Peroxide. Croatica Chemica Acta. 2015; 88:73-79. https://doi.org/10.5562/cca2551.
Zanini DJ, Silva MH, Aguiar-Oliveira E, Mazalli MR, Kamimura ES, Maldonado RR. Spectrophotometric analysis of vitamin C in different matrices utilizing potassium permanganate. European International Journal of Science and Technology.2018; 7(1):70-84.
Arya SP, Mahajan M, Jain P. Photometric methods for the determination of vitamin C. Analytical Sciences.1998; 14:889-895.
Lau O-W, Luk S-F, Wong K-S. Determination of ascorbic acid in pharmaceuticals using direct ultraviolet spectrophotometry. Analyst. 1987; 112:1023-1025.
Dilgin Y, Nisli G. Fluorimetric determination of ascorbic acid in vitamin C tablets using methylene blue. Chem. Pharm. Bull. 2015; 53:1251-1254. https://doi.org/10.1248/cpb.53.1251.
Ensafi AA, Rezaei B. Flow injection analysis determination of ascorbic acid with spectrofluorimetric detection. Analytical Letters. 1998; 31:333-342. https://doi.org/10.1080/00032719808002049.
Gazdik Z, Zitka O, Petrlova J, AdamV, Zehnalek J, Horna A, Reznicek V, Beklova M, kizek R. Determination of vitamin C(ascorbic acid) using high performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrochemical detection. Sensors.2008; 8(11):7097-7112. https://doi.org/ 10.3390/s8117097
Clucu AA. Chemically modified electrodes in biosensing. J Biosens Bioelectron.2014; 5(3):1-10.https://doi.org/10.4172/2155-6210.1000154
March G, Nguyen TD, Piro B. Modified electrodes used for electrochemical detection of metal ions in environmental analysis. Biosensor. 2015; 5(2):241-275. https://doi.org/10.3390/bios5020241.
Cox JA, Kulesza PJ. Oxidation and determination of nitrite at modified electrodes. Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry and Interfacialelectrochemistry.1984; 175(1-2): 105-118. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0022-0728(84)80349-6
Felter TE, Hubbard AT. L.E.E.D. and electrochemistry of iodine on Pt (100) and Pt (111) single-crystal surfaces. J. Electroanal. Chem.1979, 100:473-491. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0022-0728(79)80179-5
Shu ZX, Bruckenstein S. Iodine Adsorption Studies at Platinum. J. Electroanal. Chem.1991, 317:263-277. https://doi.org/10.1016/0022-0728(91)85019-L
Mebrahtu T, Rodriguez JF, Bravo BG, Soriaga MP. Hydrogenative/cathodic stripping of iodine chemisorbed on smooth polycrystalline platinum electrode. J. Electroanal. Chem. 1987, 219, 327-333. https://doi.org/10.1016/0022-0728(87)85050-7
Thomas AE, Wieckowski A. Surface diffusion limited desorption of iodine on a platinum electrode?. Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry.1995; 399:207-212. https://doi.org/10.1016/0022-0728(95)04226-1
Podlovchenko BI, Kolyadko EA. Adsorption of carbon monoxide on platinized platinum electrode with preadsorbed iodine and iodide Anions. Russian Journal of Electrochemistry. 2003; 39: 823-827.
Hourani MK. Determination of silver (I) by cyclic voltammetry at iodine-coated electrodes. Analyst. 1994; 119: 1975-1978. https://doi.org/10.1039/AN9941901975
Lane RF, Hubbard AT, Fukunaga K, Blanchard RJ. Brain catecholamines: detection in vivo by means of differential pulse voltammetry at surface-modified platinum electrodes. Brain Research. 1976; 114(2): 346–352. https://doi.org/10.1016/0006-8993(76)90678-8
Hourani M, Jarar A, Arar S. Atmospheric SO2 determination by voltammetric analysis at an iodine-coated platinum electrode. Electroanalysis.1999; 11(9):637-640. https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1521-4109(199907)11:9<637::AID-ELAN637>3.0.CO;2-R
Hourani Mk, Hijaz B. Voltammetric Analysis of Hydroquinone and Catechol at Iodine-Coated Polycrystalline Platinum Electrode. Journal of Natural and engineering Science.2014; 8(2): 25-29.
Amayreh M, Hourani MK. Determination of iron in dietary supplements by voltammetric analysis at an iodine-coated polycrystalline platinum electrode. Int.J. Electrochem. Sci. 2018; 13: 975-983. https://doi.org/10.20964/2018.01.81
Amayreh M, Hournai MK. Direct determination of hemoglobin in blood using iodine-coated platinum polycrystalline electrode. Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry Research. 2019; 6(1): 59-68. https://doi.org/10.22036/ABCR.2018.125953.1198.
Hournai MK, Amayreh M, Hourani W. A Voltammetric sensor based on iodine-coated platinum electrode for determination of iron in blood serum. Anal.Bioanal.Electrochem. 2018; 10(12):1620-1628.
Amayreh M, Hourani M. Determination of Iron in Spinach Using Sweep Voltammetry at Iodine-Coated Platinum rotating Disk Electrode. Journal of AOAC International. 2019; 102(2):666-668. https://doi.org/10.5740/jaoacint.18-0267.
Amayreh M, Hourani W, Hourani MK. Anodic Stripping Voltammetric Determination of Copper in Multivitamin-Mineral Formulations using Iodine-Coated Platinum Electrode. Methods Objects Chem. Anal.2021,16(1),48-56. https://doi.org/10.17721/moca.2021.48-56.
Miller JN, Miller JC Statistics and Chemometrics for Analytical Chemistry.6th ed. Pearson, England;2010.43-45p.
Bitew Z, Amare M. Electrochemical determination of ascorbic acid in pharmaceutical tablets using carbon paste electrode. Organic & Medicinal Chemistry International Journal. 2019; 8(5):1-9.https://doi.org/10.19080/OMCIJ.2019.08.555749
Lourenção BC, Medeiros RA, Rocha-Filho RC, Fatibello-Filho O, Simultaneous differential pulse voltammetric determination of ascorbic acid and caffeine in pharmaceutical formulations using a boron-doped diamond electrode. Electroanalysis.2010; 22(15):1717-1723. https://doi.org/10.1002/elan.200900612
Vedenyapina MD, Kazakova MM, Skundin AM. Voltammetric determination of ascorbic acid in pharmaceutical formulation on a boron doped diamond electrode. Russ. J. Phys. Chem. 2019; 93: 1178-1181. https://doi.org/10.1134/S0036024419060335
Copyright Notice and Open Access Statement
The Journal Vitae works under the Open Access license, and the published manuscripts remain available for the public, both on the Journal's website and in databases, under the Creative Commons license, "Non-commercial Attribution" and "No-derivative Works" systems, adopted in Colombia. Hence, when the authors agree to publish in the Journal Vitae, they also give the exclusive license and the copyrights to the Journal Vitae and the University of Antioquia, without the right to economic retributions on publications and reproductions through different diffusion media. The documents are freely available to the internet public, permitting any users to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts, pass them as data to software. The only constraint on reproduction and distribution, and the only role for copyright in this domain, should be to give authors control over the integrity of their work and the right to be appropriately acknowledged and cited.
Authors declare that:
They are the intellectual property owners and responsible for all the information stated in the article.
This manuscript has not been submitted or published in other printed or digital media. They accept the responsibility for the judgments, opinions, and points of view expressed in the published article and, therefore, they exonerate Universidad de Antioquia and Journal Vitae from any process.
They exempt Universidad de Antioquia and Journal Vitae from the settlement of conflicts or disputes related to the authorship of the referred article.
They accept the revision of the original manuscript by suitable personnel, and they bind themselves to perform the corrections appointed or suggested by the assessors.
They know the editorial process and, therefore, will not bind the Editorial Board of the Journal to assume any obligations regarding the volume and issue in which the article is published.
They transfer the rights of publication, reprinting, and distribution of the article from the moment of its approval, in print and digital format, without the right to economic rewards, and under the licensing conditions considered relevant by Journal Vitae.
They fully authorize Universidad de Antioquia and Journal Vitae to submit the published material to the diverse databases and indexing systems where the Journal can be found to comply with the requirements of the regulatory authorities to maintain the national classification of journals.
They will assume the article publication costs established for the current issue, and they will make the payment as soon as they are informed about the volume and the issue in which the final version of the article is published.
After the article is published, you can share digital or printed copies in a non-commercial manner. You will be able to use the paper in your institution or company for educational or research purposes, including the use in course programs.
Conflict of interest: Authors are responsible for recognizing and disclosing any financial or other benefits that could be perceived to bias their work, acknowledging all financial support and any personal connections with potential sponsors. Examples of such conflicts include receiving research funds or honoraria, serving on advisory boards, stock ownership, or employment and consulting arrangements. Authors without such connections should clearly state that they have no financial support or personal relationships that could be perceived to bias their work. All conflicts of interest should be disclosed on the author's identification page of the manuscript.