Effects of Solar Drying on the Structural and Thermodynamic Characteristics of Bee Pollen

Authors

  • Carlos Mario Zuluaga Dominguez Universidad Nacional de Colombia –Sede Bogotá –Instituto de Ciencia y Tecnología de Alimentos https://orcid.org/0000-0001-7709-0401
  • Brian Alberto Castellanos Páez Universidad Nacional de Colombia –Sede Bogotá – Facultad de Ingeniería - Departamento de Ingeniería Química y Ambiental https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5876-333X
  • Andrés Durán Jiménez Universidad Nacional de Colombia –Sede Bogotá – Facultad de Ingeniería – Departamento de Ingeniería Química y Ambiental https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0510-6114
  • Carlos Alberto Fuenmayor Universidad Nacional de Colombia – Sede Bogotá – Instituto de Ciencia y Tecnología de Alimentos https://orcid.org/0000-0001-9338-8312
  • Marta Cecilia Quicazán Universidad Nacional de Colombia – Sede Bogotá – Instituto de Ciencia y Tecnología de Alimentos https://orcid.org/0000-0002-0266-6661

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.17533/udea.vitae.v29n3a350572

Keywords:

Conservation processes, beekeeping, bee pollen, quality, dehydration, Solar Drying, Thermodynamic Characteristics

Abstract

Background: Bee pollen is a natural product collected and transformed by bees, intended for human consumption, given its nutritional and bioactive richness. The fundamental operation of adequacy is drying, which allows its preservation, avoiding chemical or microbiological degradation, typically using tray dryers with hot air that use electricity or fuel for heat generation. Solar drying is an alternative that uses radiation as an energy source. However, it should be ensured that this type of process guarantees the quality of the product while not degrading its properties and, therefore, maintaining its morphological integrity. Objective: to establish the effect of solar drying on bee pollen structure compared to the conventional cabin dehydration process. Methods: Bee pollen was dehydrated using two types of dryers: a solar dryer and a forced convection oven. The solar dryer operating conditions were an average temperature of 19-35 °C with a maximum of 38 °C and average relative humidity (RH) of 55 %. Cabin dryer operating conditions were a set point temperature of 55 ± 2 °C and 10 % RH average humidity. The morphologic and thermodynamic properties of dried bee pollen, such as phase transition enthalpy through Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), porosity and surface area through surface area analysis, and microscopic surface appearance by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), were measured. Results: The results showed dry bee pollen, both in the cabin dryer and solar dryer, did not suffer morphological changes seen through SEM compared to fresh bee pollen. Moreover, surface area analysis indicated the absence of porosity in the microscopic or macroscopic structure, demonstrating that solar or cabin drying processes did not affect the specific surface area concerning fresh bee pollen. Additionally, Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and Thermo Gravimetric Analysis (TGA) showed that endothermic phase transitions for dried bee pollen by cabin or solar dryer were at 145 °C and 160 °C, respectively. This can be mostly associated with free water loss due to the morphological structure preservation of the material compared to fresh bee pollen. Conclusion: These results demonstrate that solar drying is a reliable alternative to bee pollen dehydration as there were no effects that compromised its structural integrity.

|Abstract
= 529 veces | PDF
= 329 veces|

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

Durán Jiménez A, Quicazán Sierra M. Diseño de un sistema de secado y separación de impurezas para polen apícola en Colombia. [Master’s Grade Work]. [Bogotá, Colombia]: Universidad Nacional de Colombia: 2014. 181-182 p.

Pulido Chavarro NA, Díaz Moreno AC. Influencia del proceso de deshidratación en la calidad fisicoquímica y bioactiva del polen apícola. [Master’s Grade Work]. [Bogotá, Colombia]: Universidad Nacional de Colombia: 2013. 77-78 p.

Lulin L, Jianzhong L, Cheng J, Xi J, Zhou J, Cen K. Experimental Study on Solar Drying of Lignite. IEEE. 2010; 1: 714–18. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1109/ICDMA.2010.286

Barajas JP, Martínez T, Rodriguez E. Evaluación del Efecto de la Temperatura en el Secado de Polen Apícola Procedente de dos Zonas de Cundinamarca. Dyna [Internet]. 2011 [cited 2022 Oct 11]; 78: 48–57. Available from: https://www.redalyc.org/articulo.oa?id=49622372005

Rabha DK, Muthukumar P. Feasibility Study of the Application of a Latent Heat Storage in a Solar Dryer for Drying Green Chili. IEEE. 2018; 2: 1–6. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1109/EPETSG.2018.8658770

Nguyen VL. Improvement of conventional solar drying system. IEEE. 2017; 1: 690-693. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1109/ICSSE.2017.8030964

Soledad AM, Correa AR. Efecto del tipo de secado sobre las propiedades sensoriales intrumentales del polen. Universidad Nacional de Colombia [Internet]. 2015 [cited 2022 Oct 11]; 1: 1-4. Available from: http://investigacion.bogota.unal.edu.co/fileadmin/recursos/direcciones/investigacion_bogota/documentos/enid/2015/memorias2015/ingenieria_tecnologias/efecto_del_tipo_de_secado_sobre_las_propied.pdf

Mujumdar AS. Handbook of Industrial Drying [Internet]. Montreal: McGill University; 1987 [cited 2022 Oct 11]. 958 p. Available from: https://www.osti.gov/etdeweb/biblio/7177179

Zhang Y, Minglong Z, Hong Z, Zhandong Y. Solar drying for agricultural products in China. IEEE. 2011; 1: 715–719. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1109/ICAE.2011.5943895

Alvarez RT. Secado Óptimo del Polen para su Conservación y Caracterización, en un Secador Solar en Arequipa. [Grade Work]. [Arequipa, Perú]: Universidad Nacional de San Agustín: 2014. 1-37 p.

Da Silva RS, Lobo J, Rodrigues M, Bruggianesi G, Guimarães CL. Kinetics drying of silver banana (Musa spp.) in hybrid dryer. Revista Ciência Agronômica. 2019; 50 (3): 353–360. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5935/1806-6690.20190042

Zuluaga C, Serrato Bermudez J, Quicazán M. Influence of drying-related operations on microbiological, structural and physicochemical aspects for processing of bee-pollen. Engineering in Agriculture, Environment and Food. 2018; 11 (2): 57–64. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eaef.2018.01.003

Omojola A, Olusola O. Effects of drying on the qualities of some selected Vegetables. International Journal of Engineering and Technology. 2009; 1 (5): 409–414. DOI: https://doi.org/10.7763/IJET.2009.V1.77

Isik A, Ozdemir M, Doymaz I. Effect of hot air drying on quality characteristics and physicochemical properties of bee pollen. Food Science and Technology. 2018; 39 (10): 224-231. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1590/fst.02818

Cano H, Velásquez H, Arango J. Efecto del secado y presecado mecánico previo al almacenamiento en la calidad del grano de café (Coffea arabica L.). Revista U.D.C.A Actualidad & Divulgación Científica. 2018; 21 (2): 439–448. DOI: https://doi.org/10.31910/rudca.v21.n2.2018.1068

Manzano P, Quijano M, Chóez I, Barragán A. Effect of drying methods on physical and chemical properties of Ilex guayusa leaves. Revista Facultad Nacional de Agronomía Medellín. 2018; 71 (3): 8617–8622. DOI: https://doi.org/10.15446/rfnam.v71n3.71667

Kayacan S, Sagdic O, Doymaz I. Effects of hot-air and vacuum drying on drying kinetics, bioactive compounds and color of bee pollen. Journal of Food Measurement and Characterization. 2018; 12 (2): 1274-1283. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11694-018-9741-4

Abdullah N, Sulaiman F. A Comparison Study on Oven and Solar Dried Empty Fruit Bunches. Journal of Environment and Earth Science [Internet]. 2013 [cited 2022 Oct 11]; 3 (2): 145-156. Available from: https://www.iiste.org/Journals/index.php/JEES/article/view/4576/4660

Sahin S, Sumnu G, Tunaboyu F. Usage of solar-assisted spouted bed drier in drying of pea. Food and Bioproducts Processing. 2013; 91 (3): 271–278. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fbp.2012.11.006

Bradbear N. La apicultura y los medios de vida sostenibles [Internet]. Roma: Folleto de la FAO sobre diversificación 1; 2005 [cited 2022 Oct 11]. Available from: http://www.fao.org/3/y5110s/y5110s00.htm

Pierre JP. Apicultura: Conocimiento de la abeja y manejo de la colmena [Internet]. Madrid: Ediciones Mundi-Prensa; 2007 [cited 2022 Oct 11]. 789 p. Available from: https://books.google.com.co/books/about/Apicultura_Conocimiento_de_la_abeja_Mane.html?id=NRnVlm_rp6kC&redir_esc=y

Valdéz P. Polen Apícola: Una alternativa de negocio [Internet]. Santiago de Chile: Apicultura Reporte N°1; 2014 [cited 2022 Oct 11]. 8 p. Available from: https://bibliotecadigital.odepa.gob.cl/handle/20.500.12650/70079

Fuenmayor CA, Zuluaga CM, Díaz AC, Quicazán MC, Cosio M, Mannino S. Evaluation of the physicochemical and functional properties of Colombian bee pollen. Revista MVZ Córdoba. 2014; 19 (1): 4003–4014. DOI: https://doi.org/10.21897/rmvz.120

Soares V, Dos Santos A, Sampaio DF, Araújo E, Castro AL. Microbiological quality and physicochemical characterization of Brazilian bee pollen. Journal of Apicultural Research. 2017; 56 (3): 231–238. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/00218839.2017.1307715

Komosinska Vassev K, Olczyk P, Kaźmierczak J, Mencner L, Olczyk K. Bee pollen: chemical composition and therapeutic application. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 2015; 1: 1-6. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1155/2015/297425

Kieliszek M, Piwowarek K, Kot AM, Błażejak S, Chlebowska-Śmigiel A, Wolska I. Pollen and bee bread as new health-oriented products: A review. Trends in Food Science and Technology. 2017; 71:170–80. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tifs.2017.10.021.

Ipohorski M, Bozzano P. Microscopía electrónica de barrido en la caracterización de materiales. Ciencia e Investigación [Internet]. 2013 [cited 2022 Oct 11]; 63 (3): 44-53. Available from: http://aargentinapciencias.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/01/RevistasCeI/tomo63-3/5-MICROSCOPIA-ELECTRONICA-DE-BARRIDO-EN-LA-CARACTERIZACION-DE-MATERIALES-cei63-3-2013-5.pdf

Sharma V, Bhardwaj A. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) in food quality evaluation. Evaluation Technologies for Food Quality. 2019; 1: 743-761. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-814217-2.00029-9

Mettler Toledo, DSC 1 – TGA Star System calorimeter. https://www.mt.com/es/es/home/products/Laboratory_Analytics_Browse/TA_Family_Browse/DSC.html. 2020 (accessed 11 October 2022).

Micromeritics, Gemini 2375 Sortometer. https://www.micromeritics.com/gemini-vii/ 2020 (accessed 11 October 2022).

Chamorro F, León D, Montoya PM, Parra G, Solarte VM. Botanical origin and geographic differentiation of bee-pollen produced in high mountains from the Colombian eastern Andes. Grana. (2017); 56 (5): 386-97. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/00173134.2017.1283440

Fraser WT, Lomax B, Jardine PE, Gosling WD, Sephton MA. Pollen and spores as a passive monitor of ultraviolet radiation. Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution. 2014; 2 (1): 1-3. DOI: https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.3389/fevo.2014.00012

Isik A, Ozdemir M, Doymaz I. Infrared drying of bee pollen: effects and impacts on food components. Czech Journal of Food Sciences. 2019; 37 (1): 69–74. DOI: https://doi.org/10.17221/410/2017-CJFS

Kanar Y, Gökçen B. Efect of diferent drying methods on antioxidant characteristics of bee pollen. Journal of Food Measurement and Characterization. 2019; 19: 3376-86. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11694-019-00283-5

Zuluaga CM, Quicazán MC. Effect of fermentation on structural characteristics and bioactive compounds of bee pollen based food. Journal of Apicultural Science. 2019; 63 (2): 209-222. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2478/jas-2019-0016

Ahmed J, Prabhu ST, Raghavan V, Ngadi M. Physico-chemical, rheological, calorimetric and dielectric behavior of selected Indian honey. Journal of Food Engineering. 2007; 79 (4): 1207–1213. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2006.04.048

Perry R, Green D. Perry’s Chemical Engineers’ handbook [Internet]. New York: McGraw-Hill; 2008 [cited 2022 Oct 11]. 2700 p. Available from: https://www.accessengineeringlibrary.com/content/book/9780071422949

Fraser WT, Sephton MA, Watson J, Beerling DJ. UV-B absorbing pigments in spores: Biochemical responses to shade in a high-latitude birch forest and implications for sporopollenin-based proxies of past environmental change. Polar Research. 2011; 30: DOI: https://doi.org/10.3402/polar.v30i0.8312

Sebii H, Karra S, Brahim B, Mokni A, Danthine SM. Physico-Chemical, Surface and Thermal Properties of Date Palm Pollen as a Novel Nutritive Ingredient. Advances in Food Technology and Nutritional Science. 2019; 5 (3): 84-91. DOI: https://doi.org/10.17140/AFTNSOJ-5-160

Tzvetkov G, Kaneva N, Spassov T. Room-temperature fabrication of core-shell nano-ZnO/pollen grain biocomposite for adsorptive removal of organic dye from water. Applied Surface Science. 2017; 400: 481–491. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apsusc.2016.12.225

Ma H, Zhang P, Wang J, Xu X, Zhang H. Preparation of a novel rape pollen shell microencapsulation and its use for protein adsorption and pH-controlled release. Journal of Microencapsulation. 2014; 31 (7): 667–73. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3109/02652048.2014.913723

Zhang L, Lin T, Pan X, Wang W, Liu T. Morphology-controlled synthesis of porous polymer nanospheres for gas absorption and bioimaging applications. Journal of Materials Chemistry. 2012; 22 (19): 9861–9869. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1039/C2JM30395G

Benavent Y, Rosell C. Morphological and physicochemical characterization of porous starches obtained from different botanical sources and amylolytic enzymes. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules. 2017; 103: 587–595. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2017.05.089

Sozer N, Dogan H, Kokini J. Textural Properties and Their Correlation to Cell Structure in Porous Food Materials. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 2011; 59 (5): 1498–1507. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1021/jf103766x

Thakur M, Nanda V. Exploring the physical, functional, thermal, and textural properties of bee pollen from different botanical origins of India. Journal of Food Process Engineering. 2018; 43 (1). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/jfpe.12935

Bee pollen microphotograph

Downloads

Published

18-10-2022

How to Cite

Zuluaga Dominguez, C. M., Castellanos Páez, B. A., Durán Jiménez, A., Fuenmayor, C. A., & Quicazán, M. C. (2022). Effects of Solar Drying on the Structural and Thermodynamic Characteristics of Bee Pollen. Vitae, 29(3). https://doi.org/10.17533/udea.vitae.v29n3a350572

Issue

Section

Foods: Science, Engineering and Technology

Most read articles by the same author(s)

Similar Articles

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 > >> 

You may also start an advanced similarity search for this article.