Clinical, immunologic and genetic characterization of Colombian patients with cutaneous recalcitrant warts



Palabras clave:

verruga, verruca, verrucae, warts, resistant, recalcitrant, WES, HPV


Inborn errors of innate and intrinsic immunity are monogenic diseases that result in predisposition to a whole spectrum of infectious diseases (for example, viruses)(1). Cutaneous warts caused by Human Papillomavirus (HPV) infection has an incidence that range from ~10% in the general population(2). These lesions are relatively common and most warts regress spontaneously. However, in some individuals, these warts persist for > 2 years without response to conventional therapy (cryotherapy, salicylic acid or bleomycin), and they are called recalcitrant warts (RW)(2-4). Host defense against HPV relies on intact and functioning cellular immunity including T cell, natural killer cell cytotoxicity and intrinsic immunity. Therefore, in patients in whom warts are recalcitrant, concern for immune defects is raised (5).
RW have been documented in patients with a few inborn errors of immunity, either in combination with broad infectious phenotypes (combined immunodeficiencies), and HIV+ and transplanted patients(6, 7). On the another hand, is well documented that patients with Epidermodysplasia Verruciformis present a specific genetic predisposition to beta-HPV infection, but only very few is known about genetic susceptibility to recalcitrant warts and to our knowledge there is not studies searching for monogenic defects associated with RW(7-9). Therefore, we hypothesized that susceptibility to RW due to HPV viruses in otherwise healthy individuals, might be due to underlying genetic defects in intrinsic and innate immunity.

= 100 veces | PDF
= 117 veces|


Los datos de descargas todavía no están disponibles.

Biografía del autor/a

, University of Antioquia

Biomedical basic sciences corporation. Group of Primary Immunodeficiencies.

, University Paris Descartes

Human Genetics of Infectious Diseases INSERM.

, University of Antioquia

Group of Primary Immunodeficiencies. Microbiology School.

, University of Antioquia

Group of Primary Immunodeficiencies.

, University of Antioquia

Group of Primary Immunodeficiencies. Microbiology School.


(1) Tangye SG, Al-Herz W, Bousfiha A, Chatila T, Cunningham-Rundles C, Etzioni A, et al. Human Inborn Errors of Immunity: 2019 Update on the Classification from the International Union of Immunological Societies Expert Committee. J Clin Immunol. 2020;40(1):24-64.

(2) Leung L. Recalcitrant nongenital warts. Australian Family Physician. 2011;40(1-2):40-2.

(3) MASSING AM, EPSTEIN WL. Natural history of warts. A two-year study. Arch Dermatol. 1963;87:306-10.

(4) Scheurer ME, Tortolero-Luna G, Adler-Storthz K. Human papillomavirus infection: biology, epidemiology, and prevention. Int J Gynecol Cancer. 2005;15(5):727-46.

(5) Stanley M. Immune responses to human papillomavirus. Vaccine. 2006;24 Suppl 1:S16-22.

(6) Cubie HA. Diseases associated with human papillomavirus infection. Virology. 2013;445(1-2):21-34.

(7) Leiding JW, Holland SM. Warts and all: human papillomavirus in primary immunodeficiencies. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2012;130(5):1030-48.

(8) Kalinska-Bienias A, Kowalewski C, Majewski S. The EVER genes - the genetic etiology of carcinogenesis in epidermodysplasia verruciformis and a possible role in non-epidermodysplasia verruciformis patients. Postepy Dermatol Alergol. 2016;33(2):75-80.

(9) de Jong SJ, Créquer A, Matos I, Hum D, Gunasekharan V, Lorenzo L, et al. The human CIB1-EVER1-EVER2 complex governs keratinocyte-intrinsic immunity to β-papillomaviruses. J Exp Med. 2018;215(9):2289-310.




Cómo citar

Julián, Emmanuelle, Juan Álvaro, José Luis, Andrés Augusto. Clinical, immunologic and genetic characterization of Colombian patients with cutaneous recalcitrant warts. Iatreia [Internet]. 29 de abril de 2021 [citado 13 de junio de 2024];34(1-S):S9-S10. Disponible en:

Artículos más leídos del mismo autor/a

1 2 > >> 

Artículos similares

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 > >> 

También puede {advancedSearchLink} para este artículo.