Proceso de gasificación de biomasa: una revisión de estudios teórico – experimentales

Authors

  • Juan Pérez Universidad de Antioquia
  • David Borge Simelec S.L.
  • John Agudelo Universidad de Antioquia

Keywords:

Energías renovables, gasificación, biomasa, lecho fijo, lecho fluidizado

Abstract


La situación energética y medioambiental mundial hace que la generación de energía mediante sistemas basados en energías renovables tome cada vez una mayor relevancia. Estos sistemas tienen una doble ventaja ya que posibilitan la diversificación energética y reducen la dependencia del petróleo a la vez que se disminuyen las emisiones globales de CO2. La biomasa es uno de los recursos energéticos con mayor potencial tanto en países desarrollados como emergentes pero sigue sin sufrir el desarrollo esperado. La gasificación de biomasa es uno de los sistemas con gran potencial ya que permite la generación tanto de energía térmica como eléctrica, mediante tecnologías de bajo costo como los gasificadores de lecho fijo (potencias medias - bajas), o reactores de lecho fluidizado con tecnología más exigente y con mayorcapacidad de generación. La transformación de la biomasa en un combustible gaseoso, aprovechable en motores de combustión interna alternativos o en turbinas de gas como combustible, exige que la biomasa atraviese varios procesos termoquímicos, compuestos por reacciones endotérmicas (secado, devolatilización y reducción) y exotérmicas (oxidación de volátiles y carbón). La selección de un gasificador requiere conocer las propiedades de la biomasa, mientras que el diseño del mismo exige conocer el fenómeno termoquímico por completo. El objetivo de este trabajo es presentar una revisión actualizada de los diferentes planteamientos tanto teóricos como experimentales desarrollados para estudiar el proceso de gasificación de biomasa, tanto en lecho fijo como en lecho fluidizado, con miras a diseñar gasificadores de biomasa.
|Abstract
= 33 veces | PDF (ESPAÑOL (ESPAÑA))
= 14 veces|

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

Z. Zainal, A. Rifau, G. Quadir, K. Seetharamu. “Experimental investigation of a downdraft biomass gasifier”. Biomass and Bioenergy. Vol. 23. 2002. pp. 283-289.

T. Warren, R. Poulter, R. Parfitt. “Converting biomass to electricity on a farm-sized scale using downdraft gasification and a spark-ignition engine”. Bioresource Technology. Vol. 52. 1995. pp. 95-98.

H. S. Mukunda, S. Dasappa, U. Shrinivasa. Open top wood gasifiers. T.B. Johanson, H. Kelly, A.K.N. Reddy, R. H. Williams, (eds.), Renewable Energy, Sources for Fuels and Electricity. Ed. Island Press. 1993. pp. 699-728.

S. Dasappa, H. V. Sridhar, G. Sridhar, P. J. Paul, H. S. Mukunda. “Biomass gasifcation - a substitute to fossil fuel for heat application”. Biomass and Bioenergy. Vol. 25. 2003. pp. 637-649.

T. Reed, R. Walt, S. Ellis, A. Das, S. Deutch. “Superficial velocity - the key to downdraft gasification”. Fourth Biomass Conference of the Americas, Oakland, USA. 1999. pp. 343-356.

F. V. Tinaut, A. Melgar, J. F. Pérez, A. Horrillo. “Effect of biomass particle size and air superficial velocity on the gasification process in a downdraft fixed bed gasifier. An experimental and modelling study”. Fuel Processing Technology. Vol. 89. 2008. pp. 1076-1089.

U. Henriksen, J. Ahrenfeldt, T. Kvist, B. Gobel, J. Dall, C. Hindsgaul, L. Holst. “The design, construction and

operation of a 75 kW two-stage gasifier”. Energy. Vol. 31. 2006. pp. 1542-1553.

M. Rao, S. Singh, M. Sodha, A. K. Dubey, M. Shyam. “Stoichiometric, mass, energy and exergy balance analysis of countercurrent fixed-bed gasification of post-consumer residues”. Biomass and Bioenergy. Vol. 27. 2004. pp. 155-171.

M. Lapuerta, J. J. Hernández, A. Pazo, J. López. “Gasification and co-gasification of biomass wastes: Effect of the biomass origin and the gasifier operating conditions”. Fuel Processing Technology. Vol. 89. 2008. pp. 828-837.

Z. Zainal, R. Ali, C. Lean, K. Seetharamu. “Prediction of performance of a downdraft gasifier using equilibrium modeling for different biomass materials”. Energy Conversion and Management. Vol. 42. 2001. pp. 1499-1515.

C. R. Altafini, A. Mirandola. “A chemical equilibrium model of the coal gasification process based on the minimization of the gibbs free energy”. Florence World Energy Research Symposium-FLOWERS97. Florence (Italy) 1997. pp. 123-128.

C. Altafini, P. Wander, R. Barreto. “Prediction of the working parameters of a wood waste gasifier through an equilibrium model”. Energy Conversion and Management. Vol. 44. 2003. pp. 2763-2777.

M. Rashidi. “Calculation of equilibrium composition in combustion products”. Applied Thermal Engineering. Vol. 48. 1998. pp. 103-109.

M. Lapuerta, J. J. Hernández, F. V. Tinaut, A. Horrillo. “Thermochemical behaviour of producer gas from

gasification of lignocellulosic biomass in SI engines”. SAE Technical Paper, Ser. 2001-01-3586. 2001. pp. 88-95.

J. J. Hernández, M. Lapuerta, C. Serrano. “Estimation of the laminar flame speed of producer gas from biomass gasification”. Energy and Fuels. Vol. 19. 2005. pp. 2172-2178.

G. Schuster, G. Loffer, K. Weigl, H. Hofbauer. “Biomass steam gasification an extensive parametric modeling study”. Bioresource Technology. Vol. 77. 2001. pp. 71-79.

M. Ruggiero, G. Manfrida. “An equilibrium model for biomass gasification processes”. Renewable Energy. Vol. 16. 1999. pp. 1106-1109.

X. Li, J. R. Grace, A. P. Watkinson, C.J. Lim, A. Ergudenler. “Equilibrium modeling of gasification: A free energy minimization approach and its application to a circulating fluidized bed coal gasifier”. Fuel. Vol. 80. 2001. pp. 195-207.

A. Melgar, J. F. Pérez, B. Giménez, A. Horrillo. “Diagnóstico del proceso de gasificación de biomasa mediante el análisis de la composición del gas pobre”. Anales del 8 Congreso Iberoamericano de Ingeniería Mecánica, Cusco (Perú). 2007. pp. 12-28.

R. S. Spindt. “Air-fuel ratios from exhaust gas analysis”. SAE Technical Paper, Ser. 1965. Vol. 650507. 1965. pp. 788-793.

Y. Majanne, P. Lautala, R. Lappalainen. “Condition monitoring and diagnosis in a solid fuel gasification

process”. Control Eng. Practice. Vol. 3. 1995. pp. 1017-1021.

Y. B. Yang, Y. Goh, R. Zakaira, V.Nasserzadeh, J. Swithenbank. “Mathematical modelling of msw incineration on a travelling bed”. Waste Management. Vol. 22. 2002. pp.369-380.

Y. Yang, C. Ryu, A. Khor, V. Sharifi, J. Swithenbank. “Fuel size effect on pinewood combustion in a packed bed”. Fuel. Vol. 84. 2005. pp. 2026-2038.

Y. Yang, V. Sharifi, J. Swithenbank. “Converting moving-grate incineration from combustion to gasification, numerical simulation of the burning characteristics”. Waste Management. Vol. 27. 2007. pp. 645-655.

Y. B. Yang, N. V. Shafri, J. Swithenbank. “Substoichiometric conversion of biomass and solid wastes to energy in packed beds”. AIChE Journal. Vol. 52. 2006. pp. 809-817.

D. Shin, S. Choi. “The combustion of simulated waste particles in a fixed bed”. Combustion and Flame. Vol. 121. 2000. pp. 167-180.

Y. B. Yang, V. N. Sharifi, J. Swithenbank. “Effect of air flow rate and fuel moisture on the burning behaviours of biomass and simulated municipal solid wastes in packed beds”. Fuel. Vol. 83. 2004. pp. 1553-1562.

Y. B. Yang, H. Yamauchi, V.Nasserzadeh, J. Swithenbank. “Effects of fuel devolatilisation on the combustion of wood chips and incineration of simulated municipal solid wastes in a packed bed”. Fuel. Vol. 82. 2003. pp. 2205-2221.

Y. B. Yang, C. Ryu, A. Khor, N. Yates, V. Sharifi, J. Swithenbank. “Effect of fuel properties on biomass combustion part ii. modelling approach identification of the controlling factors”. Fuel. Vol. 84. 2005. pp. 2116-2130.

C. Di Blasi. “Dynamic behaviour of stratified downdraft gasifiers”. Chemical Engineering Science. Vol. 55. 2000. pp. 2931-2944.

M. L. Hobbs, P.T. Radulovic, L.D. Smoot. “Modeling fixed-bed coal gasifiers”. AIChE Journal. Vol. 38. 1992. pp. 681-702.

M. L. Hobbs, P.T. Radulovic, L.D. Smoot. “Combustion and gasification of coals in fixed-beds”. Progress in Energy and Combustion Science. Vol. 19. 1993. pp. 505-586.

P. Radulovic, M. Ghani, LD. Smoot. “An improved model for fixed bed coal combustion and gasification”. Fuel. Vol. 74. 1995. pp. 582-594.

A. Franco, N. Giannini. “Perspectives for the use of biomass as fuel in combined cycle power plants”. International Journal of Thermal Sciences. Vol. 44. 2005. pp. 163-177.

S. Sadaka, A. Ghaly, M. Sabbah. “Two phase biomass air steam gasification model for fluidized bed reactors: Part i model development”. Biomass and Bioenergy. Vol. 22. 2002. pp. 439-462.

S. Sadaka, A. Ghaly, M. Sabbah. “Two phase biomass air steam gasification model for fluidized bed reactors: Part iii model validation”. Biomass and Bioenergy. Vol. 22. 2002. pp. 479-487.

S. Sadaka, A. E. Ghaly, M. A. Sabbah. “Two phase biomass air steam gasification model for fluidized bed reactors: Part ii model sensitivity”. Biomass and Bioenergy. Vol. 22. 2002. pp. 463-477.

I. Peterse, J. Werther. “Experimental investigation and modeling of gasification of sewage sludge in the circulating fluidized bed”. Chemical Engineering and Processing. Vol. 44. 2005. pp. 717-736.

T. Jayah, L. Aye, R. Fuller, D. F. Stewart. “Computer simulation of a downdraft wood gasifier for tea

drying”. Biomass and Bioenergy. Vol. 25. 2003. pp. 459-469.

D. L. Giltrap, R. McKibbin, G. Barnes. “A steady state model of gas-char reactions in a downdraft biomass gasifier”. Solar Energy. Vol. 74. 2003. pp. 85-91.

B. V. Babu, P. Sheth. “Modeling and simulation of reduction zone of downdraft biomass gasifier: Effect of char reactivity factor”. Energy Conversion and Management. Vol. 47. 2005. pp. 2602-2611.

A. Belghit, M. Daguenet, A. Reddy. “Heat and mass transfer in a high temperature packed moving bed subject to an external radiative source”. Chemical Engineering Science. Vol 55. 2000. pp. 3967-3978.

W. Rohsenow, J.P. Hartnett, Y.I. Cho. Handbook of Heat Transfer. Ed. McGraw – Hill. New York. 1998. pp. 235-245.

M. De Souza Santos. Solid Fuels Combustion and Gasification, Modeling, simulation and equipment operation. Ed. Marcel Dekker Inc. New York. 2004. pp. 24-38.

M. L. Hobbs, P. T. Radulovic, L. D. Smoot. “Chemical and physical processes in countercurrent fixed-bed gasification”. 23 rd Symposium of the Combustion Institute. 1990. pp. 12-26.

A. P. De Wasch, G. F. Froment. “A two dimensional heterogeneous model for fixed bed catalytic reactors”. Chemical Engineering Science. Vol 26. 1971. pp. 629- 634.

A. P. De Wasch, G. F. Froment. “Heat transfer in packed beds”. Chemical Engineering Science. Vol. 27. 1972. pp. 567-576.

G. Froment, K. Bischoff. Chemical Reactor Analysis and Design. Ed. John Wiley and Sons. New York. 1979. pp. 78-83.

G. Froment, K. Bischoff. Chemical Reactor Analysis and Design. 2nd ed. Ed. John Wiley and Sons. New York. 1990. pp. 123-145.

M. U. Ghani, P.T. Radulovic, L.D. Smoot. “An improved model for fixed-bed coal combustion and gasification: Sensitivity analysis and applications”. Fuel. Vol. 75. 1996. pp. 1213-1226.

K. M. Bryden, K. Ragland. “Numerical modeling of a deep, fixed bed combustor”. Energy & Fuels. Vol. 10. 1996. pp. 269-275.

T. Kayal, M. Chakravarty, G. Biswas. “Mathematical modeling of steady state updraft gasification of jute stick particles of definite sizes packed randomly an analytical approach”. Biomass and Bioenergy. Vol. 60. 1997. pp. 131-141.

T. K. Kayal, M. Chakravarty. “Mathematical modelling of continuous updraft gasification of bundled jute-stikc - a low ash content woody biomass”. Bioresource Technology. Vol. 49. 1994. pp. 61-73.

J. Corella, J. Herguido, J. M. Toledo, J. I. Gómez. “Modelling fluidized bed gasifiers. part II: Gasification with steam in a bubbling fluidized bed”. 1st World Conference on Biomass for Energy and Industry. Sevilla (Spain) Vol. 2. 2000. pp. 83-97.

J. Corella, A. Sanz. “Modeling circulating fluidized bed biomass gasifiers, a pseudo-rigorous model for stationary state”. Fuel Processing Technology.Vol 86. 2005. pp. 1021-1053.

C. Snaz, J. Corella. “Modeling circulating fluidized bed biomass gasifiers, results from a pseudo rigorous 1 dimensional model for stationary state”. Fuel Processing Technology. Vol. 87. 2006. pp. 247-258.

S. Hamel, W. Krumm. “Mathematical modelling and simulation of bubbling fluidised bed gasifiers”. Powder Technology. Vol. 120. 2001. pp. 105-112.

D. Oliva. Combustión del Bagazo de Caña de Azúcar en Lecho Fluidizado. Tesis Doctoral, Universidad de Valladolid. 1999. pp. 110-121.

J. Arauzo, D. Radlein, J. Piskorz, D. S. Scott. “Catalytic Pyrogasification of Biomass. Evaluation of Modified Catalyst”. Ind. Eng. Chem. Vol. 36. 1997. pp. 13-17.

M.P. Aznar, J. Corella, J. Delgado, J. Lahoz. “Improved Steam Gasification of Lignocellulosic Residues in a Fluidized Bed with Commercial Steam Reforming Catalyst”. Ind. Eng. Chem. Vol. 32. 1993. pp. 7-14.

L. García, M. L. Salvador, J. Arauzo, R. Bilbao. “CO2 as a gasifying agent for gas production from pine sawdust at low temperaturas using Ni/Al coprecipitated catalyst”. Fuel Process Technology. Vol. 69. 2001. pp. 76-89.

K. M. Bryden, K. Ragland, C. Rutland. “Modeling thermally thick pyrolysis of wood”. Biomass and Bioenergy. Vol. 22. 2002. pp. 41-53.

M. Hagge, K. M. Bryden. “Modeling the impact of shrinkage on the pyrolysis of dry biomass”. Chemical Engineering Science. Vol. 57. 2002. pp. 2811-2823.

A. Zoulalian, N. Grioui, K. Halouani, F. Halouani. “Heat and mass transfer modelling during wood carbonization”. 14th European Biomass Conference & Exhibition. Biomass for Energy, Industry and Climate Protection. Paris (France). 2005. pp. 23-32.

M. Lapuerta, J. Rodríguez, J. Hernández. “Kinetics of devolatilisation of forestry wastes from thermogravimetric analysis”. Biomass and Bioenergy. Vol. 27. 2004. pp. 385-391.

M. Lapuerta, J. J. Hernández, J. Rodríguez. “Comparison between the kinetics of devolatilisation of forestry and agricultural wastes from the middlesouth regions of Spain”. Biomass and Bioenergy, Vol. 31. 2007. pp. 13-19.

D. Borge, J. F. Pérez, A. Melgar. “Kynetic study of the biomass devolatilization process in particles sizes between 2-19 mm by means of thermogravimetric analysis”. Dyna. Vol. 75. 2008. pp. 123-131.

J. Porteiro, JL. Míguez, E. Granada, JC. Moran. “Mathematical modelling of the combustion of a single wood particle”. Fuel Processing Technology. Vol. 87. 2006. pp. 169-175.

H. Thunman, F. Niklasson, F. Johnsson, B. Leckner. “Composition of volatile gases and thermo chemical properties of wood for modeling of fixed or fluidized beds”. Energy and Fuels. Vol. 15. 2001. pp. 1488- 1497.

C. Bruch, B. Peters, T. Nussbaumer. “Modelling wood combustion under fixed bed conditions”. Fuel. Vol. 82. 2003. pp. 729-738.

M. F. Modest. Radiative Heat Transfer. Ed. Elsevier. Amsterdam. 2003. pp. 54-76.

A. D. Gosman, F. C. Lockwood. “Incorporation of a flux model for radiation into a finite-diference procedure for furnace calculations”. 14th Intenational Symposium on Combustion. The Combustion Institute. Pittsburgh. USA. 1972. pp. 786-817.

C. Argento, D. Bouvard. “A ray tracing method for evaluating the radiative heat transfer in porous media”. Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer. Vol. 39. 1996. pp. 3175- 3180.

Published

2013-03-07

How to Cite

Pérez, J., Borge, D., & Agudelo, J. (2013). Proceso de gasificación de biomasa: una revisión de estudios teórico – experimentales. Revista Facultad De Ingeniería Universidad De Antioquia, (52), 95–107. Retrieved from https://revistas.udea.edu.co/index.php/ingenieria/article/view/14808

Most read articles by the same author(s)

1 2 > >>