Social media use and health promoting lifestyle: an exploration among Indian nursing students
Objective. To evaluate the use of social media and
the health promoting lifestyle profile of indian nursing
Methods. A cross-sectional study was carried
out with 125 students (89 undergraduate and 36
graduate) from various Nursing universities in India, who
provided information on their sociodemographic data,
the Bergen Social Media Addiction Scale (BSMAS) and
the Health Promoting Lifestyle Profile (HPLP-II).
Regarding the BSMAS, the participants had an average
of 12.8 (maximum possible = 30); 42% reported they
frequently delayed their sleep due to using social media;
9% had excessive use of social media; by gender, men had
higher total score than women. With respect to the health
promoting lifestyle profile, the total average was 126.9
(maximum possible = 208); no difference was observed
by gender in the total score and men scored better in the domain of physical activity; students living with their families had higher scores in
the domain of health responsibility than those living alone; and graduate students
had better scores than undergraduate students in the scale total and in the domains
of health responsibility, spiritual relations, and interpersonal relations.
There is excessive use of social media, especially among male students. This study
also revealed lower scores than those desired in the domains of Health Promoting
Lifestyle, especially for physical activity, health responsibility, stress management,
and nutrition. Thereby, the findings may be used to improve health literacy on social
media, as well as promote a positive lifestyle among nursing students.
Sites. Cyber. Psychology Behav. 2009; 12(6):755–9.
2. Bányai F, Zsila G, Király O, Maraz A, Elekes Z, Griffiths MD, et al. Problematic Social Media Use: Results from a
Large-Scale Nationally Representative Adolescent Sample. PLoS One. 2017; 12(1): e0169839.
3. Lahti M, Haapaniemi-Kahala H, Salminen L. Use of Social Media By Nurse Educator Students: An Exploratory
Survey. Open Nurs. J. 2017;11: 26–33.
4. Kuss D, Griffiths MD. Online Social Networking and Addiction — A Review of the Psychological Literature. Int. J.
Environ. Res. Public Health. 2011; 8:3528–52.
5. Kuss DJ, Griffiths MD. Excessive online social networking: Can adolescents become addicted to Facebook ? Educ.
6. Ingólfsdóttir HR. The relationship between social media use and self-esteem: gender difference and the effects of
parental support. Reykjavík University; 2017.
7. Allen KA, Ryan T, Gray DL, Mcinerney DM, Waters L. Social Media Use and Social Connectedness in Adolescents:
The Positives and the Potential Pitfalls. Aust. J. Educ. Develop. Psychol. 2014; 31(1):18-31.
8. Şahin C. Social Media Addiction Scale - Student Form: The Reliability and Validity Study. Tojet. 2018;17(1):169–82.
9. AlFaris E, Irfan F, Ponnamperuma G, Jamal A, Van der Vleuten C, Al Maflehi N, et al. The pattern of social media use
and its association with academic performance among medical students. Med. Teach. 2018; 40(sup1):S77–82.
10. Greene JA, Choudhry NK, Kilabuk E, Shrank WH. Online social networking by patients with diabetes: a qualitative
evaluation of communication with Facebook. J. Gen. Intern. Med. Springer; 2011; 26(3):287–92.
11. Avci K, Çelikden SG, Eren S, Aydenizöz D. Assessment of medical students’ attitudes on social media use in
medicine: A cross-sectional study Assessment and evaluation of admissions, knowledge, skills and attitudes. BMC
Med. Educ. 2015; 15(1):1–6.
12. Korda H, Itani Z. Harnessing Social Media for Health Promotion and Behavior Change. Health Promot. Pract. 2013;
13. Ragu-Nathan TS, Tarafdar M, Ragu-Nathan BS, Tu Q. The consequences of technostress for end users in
organizations: Conceptual development and validation. Inf. Syst. Res. 2008; 19(4):417–33.
14. Maier C, Laumer S, Eckhardt A, Weitzel T. When Social Networking Turns to Social Overload: Explaining the Stress,
Emotional Exhaustion, and Quitting Behavior from Social Network Sites’ Users. ECIS 2012 Proceedings; 2012. P.
15. Hughes N, Burke J. Sleeping with the frenemy: How restricting ‘bedroom use’ of smartphones impacts happiness
and wellbeing. Comput. Human Behav. 2018; 85:236–44.
16. Borle PS, Parande MA, Tapare VS, Kamble VS, Bulakh PC. Health-promoting lifestyle behaviours of nursing students
of a tertiary care institute. Int. J. Community Med. Public Health. 2017; 4(5):1768-73.
17. Gururaj G, Varghese M, Benegal V, Rao GN, Pathak K, NMHS collaborators group, et al. National Mental Health
Survey of India, 2015-16: Prevalence, patterns and outcomes. Bengaluru, National Institute of Mental Health and
Neuro Sciences, NIMHANS Publication No. 129; 2016 [cited 25 May 2020]. Bengaluru; Available from: http://
18. Özçakar N, Kartal M, Mert H, Güldal D. Healthy Living Behaviors of Medical and Nursing Students. Int. J. Caring
Sci. 2015; 8(3):536-42.
19. World Health Organization. Promoting Mental Health: Concepts, Emerging Evidence, Practice: Summary Report
[Internet]. Geneva: WHO; 2001 [cited 25 May 202]. Available from https://www.who.int/mental_health/evidence/
20. Mehri A, Solhi M, Garmaroudi G, Nadrian H, Sighaldeh SS. Health promoting lifestyle and its determinants among
university students in Sabzevar, Iran. Int. J. Prev. Med. 2016; 7:65.
21. Nacar M, Baykan Z, Cetinkaya F, Arslantas D, Ozer A, Coskun O, et al. Health promoting lifestyle behaviour in
medical students: A multicentre study from Turkey. Asian Pacific J. Cancer Prev. 2014; 15(20):8969–74.
22. Nassar OS, Shaheen AM. Health-Promoting Behaviours of University Nursing Students in Jordan. Health (Irvine.
Calif). 2014; 6(19):2756–63.
23. Al-Kandari F, Vidal VL, Thomas D. Health-promoting lifestyle and body mass index among College of Nursing
students in Kuwait: A correlational study. Nurs. Health. Sci. 2008; 10(1):43-50.
24. Seenivasan P, Shibiyeswanth RI, Prakash V, Solaimuthurajagopal S, Valaiyapathy NC. A study to assess the
prevalence of behavioral risk factors for lifestyle diseases among late adolescents in Chennai, Tamil Nadu. Int. J.
Community Med. Public Health. 2017; 44(4):1260–6.
25. McSharry P, Timmins F. Promoting healthy lifestyle behaviours and well-being among nursing students. Nurs.
Stand. 2017; 31(24):51–63.
26. Andreassen CS. Online Social Network Site Addiction: A Comprehensive Review. Curr. Addict. Reports. 2015;
27. Andreassen CS, Torsheim T, Brunborg GS, Pallesen S. Development of a Facebook Addiction Scale. Psychol. Rep.
28. Walker SN, Sechrist KR, Pender NJ, Blue D. Health Promotion Model-Instruments to Measure Health Promoting
Lifestyle: Health-Promoting Lifestyle Profile [HPLP II] (Adult version). University of Michigan; 1995.
29. Hong JF, Sermsri S, Keiwkarnka B. Health-promoting lifestyles of nursing students in Mahidol University. J. Public
Health. Dev. 2007;5(1):27–40.
30. Tanjani PT, Azadbakht M, Garmaroudi G, Sahaf R, Fekrizadeh Z. Validity and Reliability of Health Promoting
Lifestyle Profile II in the Iranian Elderly. Int. J. Prev. Med; 2016; 7:74.
31. Shrivastava A, Sharma M, Marimuthu P. Internet use at workplaces and its effects on working style in indian
context: An exploration. Indian J. Occup. Environ. Med. 2016; 20(2):88-94.
32. Wittayapun Y, Tanasirirug V, Butsripoom BB. Factors affecting health-promoting behaviors in nursing students of
faculty of nursing, Srinakharinwirot University, Thailand. J. Public Health. 2010; 40(2):215-25.
33. Andreassen CS, Torsheim T, Pallesen S. Predictors of use of social network sites at work - a specific type of
cyberloafing. J. Comput. Commun. 2014; 19(4):906–21.
34. Durak M, Şenol-Durak E. Associations of social anxiety and depression with cognitions related to problematic
Internet use in youths. Educ. Sci. 2013; 38(169):19–29.
Copyright (c) 2020 Investigación y Educación en Enfermería
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
Derechos de propiedad / Direitos de Propriedade
English: If the article is accepted for publication, all copyright will be of exclusive property of Investigación y Educación en Enfermería. The text and the graphics included in the publication are exclusive responsibility of the authors and not necessarily reflect the thought of the Editorial Committee.
Español: Si el artículo es aprobado para publicación, todos los derechos son de propiedad de Investigación y Educación en Enfermería. El texto y las gráficas incluidas en la publicación son de exclusiva responsabilidad de los autores y no necesariamente refleja el pensamiento del Comité Editorial.
Português: Se o artigo for aceito para publicação, todos os direitos autorais serão de propriedade exclusiva de Investigación y Educación en Enfermería. O texto e os gráficos incluídos na publicação são de responsabilidade exclusiva dos autores e não refletem necessariamente o pensamento do Comitê Editorial.