Hipertensión y su relación con el sodio, el potasio, el calcio y el magnesio

  • Gladys Velásquez de Correa Universidad de Antioquia
  • Lina Marcela López Gómez Universidad de Antioquia
Palabras clave: Hipertensión arterial, sodio, potasio, calcio, magnesio, alimentación saludable, dieta DASH.

Resumen

La presión arterial (PA) elevada es uno de los principales factores de riesgo de la enfermedad, cardiaca, cerebrovascular y renal. Su aumento se debe entre otros a factores dietéticos, genéticos y a sus interacciones, entre otros. Un respaldo amplio de evidencia científica, apoya fuertemente el concepto de que los factores dietarios afectan la PA. Las modificaciones dietarias y de estilo de vida que disminuyen la PA son: la reducción del consumo de sal, deficiencia en calorías que induce a pérdida de peso, actividad física regular, moderación en la ingesta de alcohol, aumento en la ingesta de potasio y consumo de una dieta total saludable, como la dieta DASH (Dietary Approaches to Prevent and Treat Hypertension). Específicamente las personas de raza negra son más sensibles a la disminución de la PA, cuando se les reduce la ingesta de sal, se aumenta la de potasio y se les ofrece la dieta estilo DASH. Las personas de mayor edad, con alto riesgo de sufrir enfermedades secundarias a la PA elevada, de tipo cardíaco, cerebrovascular y renal, pueden mejorar sus cifras tensionales y prevenir la aparición de complicaciones cuando realizan modificaciones en su alimentación. De interés especial son los avances en estudios de experimentación animal, epidemiológicos y de ensayos clínicos, sobre la relación entre el incremento en el contenido de calcio en la dieta y el efecto protector contra la hipertensión arterial (HTA), no obstante aún continúan las investigaciones para validar dichos hallazgos. Con respecto al magnesio y su asociación con la disminución de la PA, los estudios no son concluyentes y falta aun más evidencia para reconocer su papel en la HTA.
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Biografía del autor/a

Gladys Velásquez de Correa, Universidad de Antioquia
Nutricionista Dietista. Docente Universitaria Escuela de Nutrición y Dietética, Universidad de Antioquia.    
Lina Marcela López Gómez, Universidad de Antioquia
Nutricionista Dietista. Estudiante de Especialización en Nutrición Humana,Universidad de Antioquia.

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Publicado
2013-12-08
Cómo citar
Velásquez de Correa, G., & López Gómez, L. M. (2013). Hipertensión y su relación con el sodio, el potasio, el calcio y el magnesio. Perspectivas En Nutrición Humana, (15), 47-66. Recuperado a partir de https://revistas.udea.edu.co/index.php/nutricion/article/view/17876
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