La cuestión de las sensaciones gustativas básicas

  • Norma Constanza López Ortiz Universidad Nacional de Colombia
Palabras clave: Gusto, sabor, dulce, acidez, grasa, amargo, umami, conducta alimentaria.

Resumen

Antecedentes: existe interés en conocer la posible influencia de la percepción del gusto, y su efecto sobre la elección de la dieta y la conducta alimentaria. Objetivo: conocer los factores que modulan la percepción de los gustos básicos y su relación con el consumo de alimentos. Materiales y métodos: se hizo una búsqueda bibliográfica en bases de datos: Science Direct, Medline y Pubmed, sobre la sensación del gusto, sin considerar lo que se denomina el flavor. Resultados: se ha avanzado en las bases fisiológicas de los gustos básicos: dulce, salado, ácido, amargo y umami, recientemente se ha propuesto el gusto graso, pero aún no hay consenso al respecto. El gusto y la selección de alimentos dependen de factores genéticos, las primeras experiencias con estímulos sápidos, incluso antes de nacer, factores culturales, sociales, individuales y otros relacionados con el alimento. No se ha podido demostrar asociación entre consumo excesivo de alimentos hipercalóricos con la sensibilidad gustativa, ni sobre esta última con la obesidad. Conclusión: el efecto de la percepción del gusto sobre el consumo de alimentos y su relación con la obesidad, aun es motivo de controversia. Se recomienda educar en la infancia sobre las percepciones gustativas, con el fin de adquirir buenos hábitos alimentarios.

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Biografía del autor/a

Norma Constanza López Ortiz, Universidad Nacional de Colombia

Maestría en Química, Química Farmacéutica.

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Publicado
2016-07-28
Cómo citar
López Ortiz N. C. (2016). La cuestión de las sensaciones gustativas básicas. Perspectivas En Nutrición Humana, 17(2), 185-194. https://doi.org/10.17533/udea.penh.v17n2a07
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Artículos de Revisión