Direct vs. Indirect Written Corrective Feedback: Student Perceptions

  • Anne Westmacott Universidad Chileno-Británica de Cultura
Keywords: English-as-a-foreign-language teaching, error correction, written corrective feedback, direct feedback, indirect feedback, action research

Abstract

Studies have shown that most teachers give written corrective feedback to written work in ELT, and that students wish to receive it; however, the debate regarding which type of feedback may be more effective is far from settled. This study reports on action research carried out with intermediate learners in a Chilean university. The teacher/researcher changed from providing direct to indirect, coded feedback in an effort to engage learners more fully. The perceptions of six learners of the two types of feedback were explored using a case-study approach. Most students claimed indirect feedback was more useful as it prompts deeper cognitive processing and learning. There was evidence it may also help reinforce grammatical knowledge and encourage autonomous learning behaviour. 

|Abstract
= 627 veces | PDF
= 470 veces| HTML
= 79 veces|

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Author Biography

Anne Westmacott, Universidad Chileno-Británica de Cultura

Universidad Chileno-Británica de Cultura, Chile. B.Sc. in Psychology (Edinburgh University), Post-Graduate Certificate in Education (Cambridge University) and M.A. in TESOL (Institute of Education)

References

Benson, P. and Lor, W. (1999). Conceptions of language and language learning. System, 27, 459-472.

Bitchener, J. (2012). A reflection on the ‘language learning potential’ of written CF. Journal of Second Language Writing,21, 348-363.

Bitchener, J., & Knoch, U. (2008). The value of written corrective feedback for migrant and international students. Language Teaching Research, 12, 409-431.

Bitchener, J. and Knoch, U. (2010). Raising the linguistic accuracy level of advanced L2 learners with writ-ten corrective feedback. Journal of Second Language Writing, 19, 207-217.

Bruton, A. (2009). Designing research into the effects of grammar correction: Not so straightforward. Journal of Second Language Writing, 18, 136-140.

Burns, A. (2005). Action research: An evolving paradigm? Language Teaching,32(2), 57-74

Chandler, J. (2003). The efficacy of various kinds of error feedback for the improvement in accuracy and fluency of L2 student writing. Journal of Second Language Writing, 12, 266-296.

Cohen L., Manion, L. and Morrison, K. (2007). Research Methods in Education. London: Routledge Falmer.

Cotterall, S. (1995) Readiness for autonomy: Investigating learner beliefs. System, 23(2), 195-205.

Ellis, R. (2003). Task-based Language Learning and Teaching. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Ellis, R. (2010). A framework for investigating oral and written corrective feedback. Studies in Second Language Acquisition 32(2), 335-349.

Ellis, R., Sheen, Y., Murakami, M. and Takashima, H. (2008). The effects of focused and unfocused writ-ten corrective feedback in an English as a foreign language context. System, 36, 353-371.

Farrokhi, F. and Sattapour, S. (2011). The Effects of Focused and Unfocused Written Corrective Feedback on Grammatical Accuracy of Iranian EFL Learners. Theory and Practice in Language Studies, 1(12), 1797-1803.

Ferris, D. (2003). Response to Student Writing. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

Ferris, D. (2006). Does error feedback help student writers? New evidence on the short-term and long-term effects of written error correction. In K. Hyland, and F. Hyland. (eds.), Feedback in Second Language Writing: Contexts and Issues (83-102). New York: Cambridge University Press.

Ferris, D. (2010). Second language writing research and written corrective feedback in SLA: Intersections and Practical Applications. Studies in Second Language Acquisition,32, 181-201.

Ferris, D.R., Liu, H., Sinha, A. and Senna, M. (2013). Writ-ten corrective feedback for individual L2 writers. Assessing Writing, 22, 307-329.

Ferris D. and Roberts, B. (2001). Error feedback in L2 writing classes: How explicit does it need to be? Journal of Second Language Writing,10(3), 161-184.

Furneaux, C., Paran, A., and Fairfax, B. (2007). Teacher stance as reflected in feedback on student writing: An empirical study of secondary school teachers in five countries. IRAL, 45, 69-94.

Guénette, D., and Lyster, R. (2013). Written Corrective Feedback and Its Challenges for Pre-Service ESL Teachers. Canadian Modern Language Review, 69(2): 129-152.

Hanaoka, Osamu and Shinichi Izumi (2012). Noticing and uptake: Addressing pre-articulated covert problems in L2 writing. Journal of Second Language Writing, 21, 332-347.

Hyland, F. (2003). Focusing on form: student engagement with teacher feedback. System,31, 217-230.Hyland, F. (2011). The language learning potential of form-focused feedback on writing: Students’ and teachers’ perceptions. In R. M. Manchón (ed.), Learning-to-write and Writing-to-learn in an Additional Language (159-180). Amsterdam: Benjamins

Lalande, J. (1982). Reducing composition errors: An experiment. The Modern Language Journal,66, 140-149.

Lee, I., (2007). Feedback in Hong Kong secondary writing classrooms: Assessment for learning or assessment of learning? Assessing Writing, 12, 180-198.

Lee, I., (2008). Student reactions to teacher feedback in two Hong Kong secondary classrooms. Journal of Second Language Learning, 17, 144-164.

Lee, I., (2014). Feedback in writing: Issues and challenges. Assessing Writing,19, 1-5.

Leki, I., (1991). The preferences of ESL students for error correction in college level writing classes. Foreign Language Annals,24, 203-218.

Manchón, R. M. (2011) Situating the learning-to-write and writing-to-learn dimensions of writing. In R. M.

Manchón (ed.), Learning-to-write and writing-to-learn in an additional language (3-16). Amsterdam: Benjamins.

Polio, C. (2012). The relevance of the second language acquisition theory to the written error correction debate. The Journal of Second Language Writing, 21, 375-389.

Robb, T., Ross, S., and Shortreed, I. (1986). Salience of feedback on error and its effect on EFL writing quality. TESOL Quarterly,20, 83-93.

Saito, H., (1994). Teachers’ practices and students’ preferences for feedback on second language writing: A case study of adult ESL learners. TESL Canada Journal,11, 46-70.

Semke, H., (1984). The effects of the red pen. Foreign Language Annals,17, 195-202.

Shin, S., (2008). ‘Fire your proof-reader!’ Grammar correction in the writing classroom. ELT Journal, 62, 358-365.}

Sheen, Y. (2007). The effect of focused written corrective feed-back and language aptitude on ESL learners’ acquisition of articles. TESOL Quarterly,41(2), 255-283

Shintani, N., Ellis. R., and Suzuki, W. (2014) Effects of Written Feedback and Revision on Learners’ Accuracy in Using Two English Grammatical Structures. Language Learning, 64(1), 103-131.

Silverman, D. (2006). Interpreting Qualitative Data. Lon-don: Sage Publications.

Storch, N., (2010). Critical feedback on written corrective feedback research. International Journal of English Studies, 10(2), 29-46.

Storch, N. and Wigglesworth, G. (2010). Learners’ processing, uptake and retention of correction feedback on writing. Studies in Second Language Acquisition,32, 303-334.

Swain, M. (1995). Three functions of output in second language learning. In G. Cook and B. Seidlhofer (eds.), Principle and Practice in Applied Linguistics (125-144). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Truscott, J., (1996). The case against grammar correction in L2 writing classes. Language Learning,46, 327-369.

Van Beuningen, C. (2010). Corrective Feedback in L2 Writing: Theoretical Perspectives, Empirical In-sights, and Future Directions. International Journal of English Studies,10(2), 1-27.

Van Beuningen, C.G., De Jong, N.H., Kuiken, F. (2008). The Effect of Direct and Indirect Corrective Feedback on L2 Learner’s Written Accuracy. International Journal of Applied Linguistics, 156, 279-296.

Van Beuningen, C., De Jong, N. H., and Kuiken, F. (2012). Evidence on the Effectiveness of Comprehensive Error Correction in Second Language Writing. Language Learning, 62(1), 1-41.

Williams, J. (2012). The potential role(s) of writing in second language development. The Journal of Second Language Writing, 21, 321-331.

Published
2017-02-24
How to Cite
Westmacott A. (2017). Direct vs. Indirect Written Corrective Feedback: Student Perceptions. Íkala, 22(1), 17-32. https://doi.org/10.17533/udea.ikala.v22n01a02
Section
Empirical Studies