Fostering Reading Comprehension and Self-Directed Learning in a Collaborative Strategic Reading (CSR) Setting


  • Jenny Mendieta Universidad de La Sabana
  • Libardo Múnera Intitución Educativa José Antionio Galán
  • Tatiana Olmos Universidad de Córdoba
  • Clara Onatra Universidad Nacional de Colombia
  • Patricia Pérez Intitución Educativa Policarpa Salavarrieta
  • Elizabeth Rojas Universidad Gran Colombia



collaborative strategic reading, collaborative work, reading comprehension, reading strategies, self-directed learning


This research project was carried out at five public educational institutions by a group of English teacher-researchers based in different regions of Colombia. Due to a shared concern about the development of reading skills and self-regulation in the L2 classroom, a multiple case action research study was designed to examine whether the use of Collaborative Strategic Reading (CSR) (Klingner, Vaughn & Schumm, 1998; Klingner & Vaughn, 1998) could foster reading comprehension in learners and at the same time help them become self-directed learners. Student pre and post questionnaires, reading tests and learning logs, as well as teacher’s journals constituted the data collection methods used during the study. Results indicate that the use of CSR impacted participants’ learning attitudes and habits positively.

= 755 veces | PDF
= 407 veces| | HTML
= 0 veces|


Download data is not yet available.

Author Biographies

Jenny Mendieta, Universidad de La Sabana

Jenny Mendieta holds a BA in Modern Languages and a master’s degree in Applied Linguistics from Universidad Distrital Francisco Jose de Caldas. She is currently undertaking a PhD program in Applied Linguistics at the University of Auckland, New Zealand and is working for the Master’s Program In English Language Teaching For Self - Directed Learning at Universidad de La Sabana.


Libardo Múnera, Intitución Educativa José Antionio Galán

Libardo Munera holds a BA in Modern Languages from Universidad de Antioquia and a master’s degree in Self-Directed Learning from Universidad de la Sabana. He has worked in different institutions and nowadays he is a full-time teacher at Colegio Jose Antonio Galan (state school).

Tatiana Olmos, Universidad de Córdoba

Tatiana Olmos holds a BA and a specialization in ELT from Universidad de Córdoba, and a master’s degree in Self-Directed Learning from Universidad de la Sabana. She has been teaching for 13 years in different institutions and currently she is a full-time teacher at Universidad de Córdoba.

Clara Onatra, Universidad Nacional de Colombia

Clara Onatra holds a BA in Spanish and English from Universidad Pedagógica  Nacional and a master’s degree in Self-Directed Learning from Universidad de la Sabana.  She has been teaching for 10 years in private and public institutions in Bogotá. Currently, she works as a full-time teacher at Universidad La Gran Colombia and Universitaria Agustiniana.

Patricia Pérez, Intitución Educativa Policarpa Salavarrieta

Patricia Perez holds a BA in Foreign Languages from Universidad de Pamplona and a master’s degree in Self-Directed Learning from Universidad de la Sabana. She has worked in different institutions and nowadays she is a full-time teacher at Colegio Policarpa Salavarrieta.

Elizabeth Rojas, Universidad Gran Colombia

Elizabeth Rojas holds a BA in Modern Languages from Universidad Distrital  Francisco José de Caldas and a master’s degree in Self-Directed Learning from Universidad de la Sabana.  She has been teaching for 15 years in high school institutions and for 5 years at different universities in Bogotá.  Currently, she is as a full-time teacher at Universidad La Gran Colombia and at Colegio Atenas (state school).


Abidin, M. J. Z., & Riswanto, R. (2012). Collaborative Strategic Reading (CSR) within cognitive and metacognitive strategies perspectives. European Journal of Business and Management, 4(1), 61–69.

Anderson, N. (2009). ACTIVE reading: The research base for a pedagogical approach in the reading classroom. In H. Zhao & N. Anderson (Eds.), Second language reading research and instruction: Crossing the boundaries (pp. 117–143). Michigan: University of Michigan Press.

Bondanza, A., & Treewater, A. (1998). Means of improving reading comprehension. Washington: ERIC Clearinghouse.

Burns, A. (1999). Collaborative action research for English language learners. UK: Cambridge University Press.

Carrel, P. L. (1983). Some issues of studying the role of schemata, or background knowledge, in L2 comprehension. Reading in a Foreign Language, 1, 81–92.

Carrell, P.L. (1987). Content and formal schemata in EL2 reading. TESOL Quarterly, 37, 461–482.

Carrell, P. L. (1988). Some causes of text–boundedness and schema interference in ESL reading. In P. L. Carrell, J. Devine, & D. E. Eskey (Eds.), Interactive approaches to second language reading (pp. 101– 113). New York: Cambridge University Press.

Carrell, P. L., & Eisterhold, J. (1983). Schema theory and ESL reading pedagogy. TESOL Quarterly, 17, 553–573.

Cotterall, S. (1995). Developing a course strategy for learner autonomy. ELT Journal, 49 (3), 219–227.

Corbin, J., & Strauss, A. (1990). Grounded theory research: Procedures, canons, and evaluative criteria. Qualitative Sociology, 13 (1), 3–21.

Chomchaiya, C., & Dunworth, K. (2008). Identification of learning barriers affecting English reading comprehension instruction, as perceived by ESL undergraduate in Thailand. Australia: Edith Cowan University.

Cummins, J. (2012). The intersection of cognitive and sociocultural factors in the development of reading comprehension among immigrant students. Read and Writing, 25, 1973–1990.

Dogan, B. (2002). The Effects of Strategy Teaching on Reading Comprehension Motivation and Retention in Cooperative and Traditional Classes. Unpublished Doctorate thesis, Dokuz Eylul University. Institute of Educational Sciences, Izmir, Turkey.

Duke, N. (2006, February). Reading comprehension instruction for students who are learning to read: Challenges in curricularizing comprehension in the primary grades. Paper presented at the K–12 Literacy Training Meeting with representatives from the comprehensive regional centers, Boston, MA. Retrieved from:

Fauziah, H. (2003). Metacognitive strategy awareness and reading comprehension. The English Teacher, 32, 16–33.

Fan, Y. C. (2010). The effect of comprehension strategy instruction on EFL Learners' Reading Comprehension. Asian Social Science, 6(8), 19–29.

Foorman, B., Francis, D., Fletcher, J., Schantschneider, C., & Mehta, P. (1998). The role of instruction in learning to read: Preventing reading failure in at–risk children. Journal of Educational Psychology, 90, 37–55.

Garrison, D. R. (1997). Self–directed learning: Toward a comprehensive model. Adult Education Quarterly, 48(1), 18–33.

Graddol, D. (2006). English next: Why global English may mean the end of ''English as a foreign language''. London: The British Council.

Grow, G. (1991). Teaching learners to be self–directed. Adult Education Quarterly, 41(3), 125–149.

Guthrie, J. T. (2004). Teaching for literacy engagement. Journal of Literacy Research, 36, 1–30.25–149.

Johnson, D.W. & Johnson, R.T. (1987). Learning and alone (2nd ed), Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Karabuga, F., & Kaya, E. S. (2013). Collaborative strategic reading practice with adult EFL learners: A collaborative and reflective approach to reading. Procedia–Social and Behavioral Sciences, 106, 621–630.

Khodabandehiou, M., Jahandar, S., Seyedi, G., & Dolat, R. (2012). The impact of self–directed learning strategies on reading comprehension. International Journal of Scientific and Engineering Research, 3(7), 1–9.

Klingner, J. K., & Vaughn, S. (1996). Reciprocal teaching of reading comprehension strategies for students with learning disabilities who use English as a second language. Elementary School Journal, 96(3), 275–293.

Klingner, J. & Vaughn, S. (1998). Using collaborative strategic reading. Teaching Exceptional Children, 30(6), 32–37.

Klingner, J. K., Vaughn, S., & Schumm, J. S. (1998). Collaborative strategic reading during social studies in heterogeneous fourth–grade classrooms. Elementary School Journal, 99, 3–21.

Klingner, J. & Vaughn, S. (2000). The helping behaviors of fifth graders while using collaborative strategic reading during ESL content classes. TESOL Quarterly, 34(1), 69–98.

Klingner, J. K., Boardman, A. G., Eppolito, A. M., & Schonewise, E. A. (2012). Supporting adolescent English language learners' reading in the content areas. Learning Disabilities: A Contemporary Journal, 10(1), 35–64.

Klingner, J. K., Vaughn, S., Arguelles, M. E., Hughes, M. T., & Leftwich, S. A. (2004). Collaborative strategic reading ''real–world'' lessons from classroom teachers. Remedial and Special Education, 25(5), 291–302.

Knowles, M. (1975). Self–Directed learning: A guide for learners and teachers. New York: Association Press.

Lowry, C. M. (1989). Supporting and facilitating selfdirected learning. Adult, Career and Vocational Education, 93, 1–6.

Mokhtari, K., & Sheorey, R. (2002). Measuring ESL students' awareness of reading strategies. Journal of Developmental Education, 25 (3). 2–10.

Nation, I. S. P. (1997). The language learning benefits of extensive reading. The Language Teacher, 21(5), 13–16.

Nation, I. S. P. (2005). Reading faster. Pasaa, 36, 21–37.

Nation, I. S. P. (2009). Teaching ESL/EFL reading and writing. New York: Routledge.

Noorizah, M. N., & Zaini, A. (2009). Exploring the vocabulary learning strategies of EFL learners. Paper presented at the 7th International Conference on Language and Culture: Creating and Fostering Global Communities. Conference Proceedings, University Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM), Malaysia. Retrieved from

Palincsar, A. & Brown, A. (1984). Reciprocal teaching of comprehension–fostering and comprehensionmonitoring activities. Cognition and Instruction, 1 (2), 117–175.

Peirce, W. (2004). Metacognition: study strategies, monitoring, and motivation. Retrieved from:

Salinger, T. (1988). Language arts and literacy for young children. University of Virginia: Merrill publishing company.

Swanson, E., Mohammed, S., Gould, A., Vaughn, S., Klingner, J., Roberts, G., Solis, M. (2011, March). The effects of collaborative strategic reading instruction on the reading comprehension of middle school students: Year 2 replication. Paper presented at The SREE Spring 2011 Conference, Building an Education Science: Investigating Mechanisms, Washington, D.C. Retrieved from:

Takase, A. (2007). Japanese high school students' motivation for extensive L2 reading. Reading in a Foreign Language, 19 (1), 1–18.

Twining, W. L. (1991). Issues of Self–Determination. London: Aberdeen University Press.

Zhang, L. J. (2008). Constructivist pedagogy in strategic reading instruction: Exploring pathways to learner development in the English as a second language (ESL) classroom. Instructional Science, 36, 89–116.

Zhang, L.J. (2010). A dynamic metacognitive systems account of Chinese university students' knowledge about EFL reading. TESOL Quarterly, 44, 320–353.

Zoghi, M., Mustapha, R., Maasum, T., & Mohd, N. R. (2010). Collaborative Strategic Reading with University EFL Learners. Journal of College Reading and Learning, 41(1), 67–94.




How to Cite

Mendieta, J., Múnera, L., Olmos, T., Onatra, C., Pérez, P., & Rojas, E. (2015). Fostering Reading Comprehension and Self-Directed Learning in a Collaborative Strategic Reading (CSR) Setting. Íkala, Revista De Lenguaje Y Cultura, 20(1), 15–42.



Empirical Studies