Dual Immersion Digital Instruction: A Theoretical Model for Equitable and Inclusive Classrooms


  • Jordi Solsona-Puig Universidad de Lleida https://orcid.org/0000-0001-5522-3189
  • María Capdevila Gutiérrez Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha
  • Fernando Rodríguez-Valls California State University.




dual immersion, digital instruction, inclusive classrooms, teacher education, remote learning, COVID-19, K-12, online instruction


Dual immersion programs have proven effective in achieving biliteracy for all students. However, maintaining equitable practices at the core of such programs has become more challenging in remote learning due to the pandemic. It is necessary, therefore, to revise some of the benefits and challenges of digital instruction mediated by technology in these settings. Using a middle school Dual Immersion (di) program in Southern California as a background, and from the perspective of bilingual education teachers and professors, this article presents a theoretical model called Dual Immersion Digital Instruction (di2) that could serve that purpose. The model includes the five dimensions involved in just, equitable, and inclusive education: Technological, content, social, linguistic, and pedagogical. The article also analyzes the pedagogical opportunities and challenges that teachers in di programs face in regards to each of these dimensions when all instruction becomes fully online. Finally, the article discusses how the shift to online teaching in di classrooms could impact bilingual teacher education programs.

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Author Biographies

Jordi Solsona-Puig, Universidad de Lleida

Dual Immersion Teacher, Glendale Unified School District, California, USA

María Capdevila Gutiérrez, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha

World Languages Department Chair, Glendale Unified School District, California, USA

Fernando Rodríguez-Valls, California State University.

Professor of Secondary Education, California State University, Fullerton, California, USA.


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How to Cite

Solsona-Puig, J., Capdevila Gutiérrez, M., & Rodríguez-Valls, F. (2021). Dual Immersion Digital Instruction: A Theoretical Model for Equitable and Inclusive Classrooms. Íkala, Revista De Lenguaje Y Cultura, 26(3), 767–782. https://doi.org/10.17533/udea.ikala.v26n3a16

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