Dual Immersion Digital Instruction: A Theoretical Model for Equitable and Inclusive Classrooms


  • Jordi Solsona-Puig Universidad de Lleida https://orcid.org/0000-0001-5522-3189
  • María Capdevila Gutiérrez Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha
  • Fernando Rodríguez-Valls California State University.




dual immersion, digital instruction, inclusive classrooms, teacher education, remote learning, COVID-19, K-12, online instruction


Dual immersion programs have proven effective in achieving biliteracy for all students. However, maintaining equitable practices at the core of such programs has become more challenging in remote learning due to the pandemic. It is necessary, therefore, to revise some of the benefits and challenges of digital instruction mediated by technology in these settings. Using a middle school Dual Immersion (di) program in Southern California as a background, and from the perspective of bilingual education teachers and professors, this article presents a theoretical model called Dual Immersion Digital Instruction (di2) that could serve that purpose. The model includes the five dimensions involved in just, equitable, and inclusive education: Technological, content, social, linguistic, and pedagogical. The article also analyzes the pedagogical opportunities and challenges that teachers in di programs face in regards to each of these dimensions when all instruction becomes fully online. Finally, the article discusses how the shift to online teaching in di classrooms could impact bilingual teacher education programs.

= 406 veces | PDF
= 219 veces|


Download data is not yet available.

Author Biographies

Jordi Solsona-Puig, Universidad de Lleida

Dual Immersion Teacher, Glendale Unified School District, California, USA

María Capdevila Gutiérrez, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha

World Languages Department Chair, Glendale Unified School District, California, USA

Fernando Rodríguez-Valls, California State University.

Professor of Secondary Education, California State University, Fullerton, California, USA.


Alanis, I., & Rodríguez, M. A. (2008). Sustaining a dual language immersion program: Features of success. Journal of Latinos and Education, 7(4), 305–319. https://doi.org/10.1080/15348430802143378

Alfaro, C. & Bartolomé, L. (2017). Preparing ideologically clear bilingual teachers: Honoring working-class non-standard language use in the bilingual education classroom. Issues on Teacher Education, 26(2), 11–34.

Archambault, L., & Crippen, K. (2009). Examining tpack among K-12 online distance educators in the United States. Contemporary issues in technology and teacher education, 9(1), 71–88.

Archambault, L., & Kennedy, K. (2014) Teacher preparation for K-12 online and blended learning. In R. E. Ferdig & K. Kennedy (Eds.), Handbook of research on K-12 online learning (pp. 225–244). etc Press.

Babino, A., & Stewart, M. A. (2017). “I like English better”: Latino dual language students’ investment in Spanish, English, and bilingualism. Journal of Latinos and Education, 16(1), 18–29. https://doi.org/10.1080/15348431.2016.1179186

Bailenson, J. N. (2021). Nonverbal overload: A theoretical argument for the causes of Zoom fatigue. Technology, Mind, and Behavior, 2(1), https://doi.org/10.1037/tmb0000030

Ballinger, S., & Lyster, R. (2011). Student and teacher oral language use in a two-way Spanish/English immersion school. Language Teaching Research, 15(3), 289–306.

Bearse, C., & De Jong, E. J. (2008). Cultural and linguistic investment: Adolescents in a secondary two-way immersion program. Equity & Excellence in Education, 41(3), 325–340. https://doi.org/10.1080/10665680802174817

Blake, R. J. (2013). Brave new digital classroom: Technology and foreign language learning. Georgetown University Press.

Burns, M. (2017). “Compromises that we make”: Whiteness in the dual language context. Bilingual Research Journal, 40(4), 339–352. https://doi.org/10.1080/15235882.2017.1388303

Center for Applied Linguistics. cal (August, 2021). Two Way Immersion Education; the Basics. Retrieved from https://www.cal.org/twi/toolkit/PI/Basics_Eng.pdf

California Department of Education —cde (2020, June). Stronger together: A guidebook for the safe reopening of California’s public schools. Retrieved from: https://www.cde.ca.gov/ls/he/hn/documents/strongertogether.pdf

California Department of Education —cde (2013). Common core standards technology skills. Retrieved from: https://www.cde.state.co.us/cdesped/accommodationsmanual_ccss_k12_techscope

California Department of Health, cdph. (2021, January). Guidance for covid-19 school reopening status reporting. Retrieved from: https://www.cdph.ca.gov/Programs/CID/DCDC/Pages/COVID-19/School-Reopening-Status-Reporting-Directive.aspx

Caprano, R. M., Capraro M. M. & Helfeldt, J. (2010). Do differing types of field experiences make a difference in teacher candidates’ perceived level of competence? Teacher Education Quarterly, 37(1),131–154.

Carpenter, B. D., Achugar, M., Walter, D., & Earhart, M. (2015). Developing teachers’ critical language awareness: A case study of guided participation. Linguistics & Education,32A, 82–97. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.linged.2015.03.016

Cavanaugh, C. S., Barbour, M. K., & Clark, T. (2009). Research and practice in K-12 online learning: A review of open access literature. The International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning, 10(1), 1–22. https://doi.org/10.19173/irrodl.v10i1.607

Chandra, S., Chang, A., Day, L., Fazlullah, A., Liu, J., McBride, L., Mudalige, T., Weiss, D., (2020). Closing the K–12 digital divide in the age of distance learning. Common Sense Media.

Chametzky, B. (2013). Generalizability and the theory of offsetting the affective filter. Grounded Theory Review, 12(2), 1–14

Cervantes-Soon, C. G., Dorner, L., Palmer, D., Heiman, D., Schwerdtfeger, R., & Choi, J. (2017). Combating inequalities in two-way language immersion programs: Toward critical consciousness in bilingual education spaces. Review of Research in Education, 41(1), 403–427. https://doi.org/10.3102/0091732X17690120

Chik, A. (2014). Digital gaming and language learning: Autonomy and community. Language Learning & Technology, 18(2), 85–100. https://doi.org/10.1057/9781137290243_6

California Legislature Information —cli (2020). AB-77 Education finance: education omnibus budget trailer. California Senate. Published: 06-29-2020. https://leginfo.legislature.ca.gov/faces/billTextClient.xhtml?bill_id=201920200AB77

Cliffe, A. D. (2017). A review of the benefits and drawbacks to virtual field guides in today’s Geoscience higher education environment. International Journal of Educational Technology in Higher Education, 14, article 28. https://doi.org/10.1186/s41239-017-0066-x

Cummins, J. (2017). Teaching minoritized students: Are additive approaches legitimate? Harvard Educational Review, 87(3), 404–425. https://doi.org/10.17763/1943-5045-87.3.404

Dorn, E., Hancock, B., Sarakatsannis, J., & Viruleg, E. (2020). covid-19 and student learning in the United States: The hurt could last a lifetime. McKinsey & Company.

Epstein, J. L., Sanders, M. G., Sheldon, S. B. Simon, B.; Salinas, K. C., Rodriguez, N., Van Hoorhis, F. L., Martin, C., Thomas, B., Greenfeld, M., Hutchins, D. & Williams, K. J., (2009). School, family, and community partnerships: Your handbook for action. Corwin Press.

Evans, M. (Ed.). (2009). Foreign language learning with digital technology. A&C Black.

Ferdig, R. E., Cavanaugh, C., DiPietro, M., Black, E. W. & Dawson, K. (2009). Virtual schooling standards and best practices for teacher education. Journal of Technology and Teacher Education, 17(4), 479–503.

Ferdig, R. E., Baumgartner, E., Hartshorne, R., Kaplan-Rakowski, R. & Mouza, C. (Eds). (2020). Teaching, technology, and teacher education during the covid-19 pandemic: Stories from the field. Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education (aace). Retrieved from https://www.learntechlib.org/p/216903/

Fish, W. W., & Wickersham, L. E. (2009). Best practices for online instructors: Reminders. Quarterly Review of Distance Education, 10(3), 279.

Fisher, D., Frey, N., & Hattie, J. (2020). The distance learning playbook, grades K-12: Teaching for engagement and impact in any setting. Corwin Press.

Fitzpatrick, A., & Davies, G. (2003). The impact of Information and Communications Technologies on the teaching of foreign languages and on the role of teachers of foreign languages. ec Directorate General of Education and Culture. European Commission

Freire, P. (2018). Pedagogy of the oppressed (originally published in 1982). Bloomsbury Publishing usa. https://doi.org/10.4324/9780429269400-8

Genesee, F., & Lindholm-Leary, K. (2007). Dual language education in Canada and the United States. In J. Cummins & N. Hornberger (Eds.), Encyclopedia of language and education (2nd Ed., pp. 253–266). Springer.

Goodchild, T., & Speed, E. (2019). Technology enhanced learning as transformative innovation: a note on the enduring myth of tel. Teaching in Higher Education, 24(8), 948–963. https://doi.org/10.1080/13562517.2018.1518900

Hafner, C. A., Chik, A. & Jones, R., eds. (2015) Digital literacies and language learning. Language Learning & Technology, 19(3), 1–7. http://centaur.reading.ac.uk/51048/

Hassel, B. B. C., & Hassel, E. A. (2012). Teachers in the age of digital instruction. Education reform for the digital era, 11, 33.

Hampel, R. (2006). Rethinking task design for the digital age: A framework for language teaching and learning in a synchronous online environment. ReCALL, 18(1), 105–121. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0958344006000711

Heifetz, R., & Linsky, M. (2017). Leadership on the line, with a new preface: Staying alive through the dangers of change. Harvard Business Press.

Heitink, M. C., Voogt, J, Verplanken, L., Braak, J., & Fisser, P. (2016). Teachers’ professional reasoning about their pedagogical use of technology. Computers & Education, 101, 70–83. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2016.05.009

Hicks, S. D. (2011). Technology in today’s classroom: Are you a tech-savvy teacher? The Clearing House: A Journal of Educational Strategies, Issues and Ideas, 84(5), 188–191. https://doi.org/10.1080/00098655.2011.557406

Hodges, T. S., & Matthews, S. D. (2020). Digital literacies and text structure instruction: Benefits, new language demands, and changes to pedagogy. In Handbook of research on integrating digital technology with literacy pedagogies (pp. 52–71). IGI Global. https://doi.org/10.4018/978-1-7998-0246-4.ch003

Howard, S. K. (2013). Risk-aversion: Understanding teachers’ resistance to technology integration. Technology, Pedagogy and Education, 22(3), 357–372. https://doi.org/10.1080/1475939X.2013.802995

Howard, E. R., Lindholm-Leary, K. J., Rogers, D., Olague, N., Medina, J., Kennedy, B., Sugarman, J., & Christian, D. (2018). Guiding principles for dual language education (3rd ed.). Center for Applied Linguistics.

Kelly-Holmes, H. (2019). Multilingualism and technology: A review of developments in digital communication from monolingualism to idiolingualism. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, 39, 24–39. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0267190519000102

Kern, R., & Schultz, J. M. (2005). Beyond orality: Investigating literacy and the literary in second and foreign language instruction. The Modern Language Journal, 89(3), 381–392.

Kolikant, Y. B. D. (2010). Digital natives, better learners? Students’ beliefs about how the Internet influenced their ability to learn. Computers in Human Behavior, 26(6), 1384–1391. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2010.04.012

Komoski, P. K. (1969). The Continuing Confusion About Technology and Education or The Myth-ing Link in Educational Technology: Epilogue to” ET Around the World”. Educational Technology, 9(11), 70–74.

Lester, P. M., & King, C. M. (2009). Analog vs. digital instruction and learning: Teaching within first and second life environments. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 14(3), 457–483. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1083-6101.2009.01449.x

Lindholm-Leary, K. J. (2005). The rich promise of two-way immersion. Educational Leadership, 62(4), 56-59. Retrieved from https://eric.ed.gov/?id=EJ745442

Love, B. (2020). We want to do more than survive: Abolitionist teaching and the pursuit of educational freedom. Beacon Press.

Lütge, C., Merse, T., Owczarek, C., & Stannard, M. (2019). Crossovers: Digitalization and literature in foreign language education. Studies in Second Language Learning and Teaching, 9(3), 519–540. https://doi.org/10.14746/ssllt.2019.9.3.5

Machado-Casas, M., Sánchez, P., & Ek, L. D. (2014). The digital literacy practices of Latina/o immigrant parents in an after-school technology partnership. Multicultural Education, 21(3/4), 28.

Means, B., Bakia, M. & Murphy, R. (2014). Learning online: What research tells us about whether, when and how. Routledge Taylor & Francis. https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203095959

Meidl, T. & Meidl, C. (2011). Curriculum integration and adaptation: Individualizing pedagogy for linguistically and culturally diverse students. Current Issues in Education, 14, 1–32

Neumann, C. (2016). Teaching digital natives: Promoting information literacy and addressing instructional challenges. Reading Improvement, 53(3), 101–107.

Oliver, K., Kellogg, S., & Patel, R. (2010). An investigation into reported differences between online math instruction and other subject areas in a virtual school. Journal of Computers in Mathematics and Science Teaching, 29(4), 417–453.

Oliver, K. (2012). An investigation into reported differences between online foreign language instruction and other subject areas in a virtual school. Calico Journal, 29(2), 269–296. https://doi.org/10.11139/cj.29.2.269-296

Orlando, J. (2014). Veteran teachers and technology: change fatigue and knowledge insecurity influence practice. Teachers and Teaching, 20(4), 427–439. https://doi.org/10.1080/13540602.2014.881644

Palmer, D. K. (2009). Middle-class English speakers in a two-way immersion bilingual classroom:“Everybody should be listening to Jonathan right now…”. tesol Quarterly, 43(2), 177-202.

Paechter, M., & Maier, B. (2010). Online or face-to-face? Students’ experiences and preferences in e-learning. The internet and higher education, 13(4), 292–297. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.iheduc.2010.09.004

Paris, D. & Alim, S. (Eds.) (2017). Culturally sustaining pedagogies: Teaching and learning for justice in a changing world. Teachers College Press.

Pettersson, F. (2020). Understanding digitalization and educational change in school by means of activity theory and the levels of learning concept. Education and Information Technologies, 26(187–204). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10639-020-10239-8

Potowski, K. (2004). Student Spanish use and investment in a dual immersion classroom: Implications for second language acquisition and heritage language maintenance. The Modern Language Journal, 88(1), 75–101.

Prensky, M. (2001). Digital natives, digital immigrants. On the Horizon, 9(5), 1–6. https://doi.org/10.1108/10748120110424816

Pretti, T. J., Etmanski, B., & Durston, A. (2020). Remote work-integrated learning experiences: Student perceptions. International Journal of Work-Integrated Learning, 21(4), 401–414.

Puentedura, R. R. (2014). samr and tpck: A hands-on approach to classroom practice. Hipassus. http://www.hippasus.com/rrpweblog/archives/2014/12/11/SAMRandTPCK_HandsOnApproachClassroomPractice.pdf

Ray, J. M. (2009). A template analysis of teacher agency at an academically successful dual language school. Journal of Advanced Academics, 21(1), 110–141. https://doi.org/10.1177/1932202X0902100106

Rice, K. (2012). Making the move to K-12 online teaching: Research-based strategies and practices. Pearson.

Scanlan, M., & Palmer, D. (2009). Race, power, and (in)equity within two-way immersion settings. The Urban Review, 41(5), 391–415. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11256-008-0111-0

Scheerder, A., van Deursen, A., & van Dijk, J. (2017). Determinants of Internet skills uses and outcomes. A systematic review of the second-and third-level digital divide. Telematics and Informatics, 34(8), 1607–1624. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tele.2017.07.007

Schmidt, R. (1993). Awareness and second language acquisition. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, 13(1), 206–226. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0267190500002476

Schwartzman, R. (2020). Performing pandemic pedagogy. Communication Education, 69(4), 502–517.

Shanks, D. R., & St. John, M. F. (1994). Characteristics of dissociable human learning-systems. Behav Brain Sci, 17(3), 367–395. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0140525X00035032

Solsona-Puig, J. (2019). Transformational leadership in dual language immersion programs; exploring secondary school leaders’ perceptions on best practices in Southern California. [Doctoral dissertation], Pepperdine University, Malibu, California. https://digitalcommons.pepperdine.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=2029&context=etd

Solsona-Puig, J., Capdevila-Gutiérrez, M., & Rodríguez-Valls, F. (2018). La inclusividad lingüística en la educación multilingüe de California: coexistencia de las variedades y registros de lengua para enriquecer el aula de inmersión dual. Educación y Educadores, 21(2), 219–236. https://doi.org/10.5294/edu.2018.21.2.3

Su, M. & Foulger, T. (2019). We aren’t there yet: A progression of literature on tpack measures to assess technology integration. In K. Graziano (Ed.), Proceedings of Society for Information Technology & Teacher Education International Conference (pp. 2534–2542). Las Vegas, nv, United States: Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education (aace).

Sugilar, S. (2020, October). Tutors’ opinions on students’ difficulties of learning mathematics in the distance higher education: A Delphi survey. Journal of Physics, 1663(1), 012009. iop Publishing.

Tiffin, J., & Rajasingham, L. (1995). In search of the virtual class: Education in an information society. Psychology Press. https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203291184

Warschauer, M., Knobel, M., & Stone, L. (2004). Technology and equity in schooling: Deconstructing the digital divide. Educational policy, 18(4), 562–588. https://doi.org/10.1177/0895904804266469

Warschauer, M., Zheng, B., Niiya, M., Cotten, S., & Farkas, G. (2014). Balancing the one-to-one equation: Equity and access in three laptop programs. Equity & Excellence in Education, 47(1), 46–62.

Zilvinskis, J., Masseria, A. A., & Pike, G. R. (2017). Student engagement and student learning: Examining the convergent and discriminant validity of the revised national survey of student engagement. Research in Higher Education, 58(8), 880–903. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11162-017-9450-6




How to Cite

Solsona-Puig, J., Capdevila Gutiérrez, M., & Rodríguez-Valls, F. (2021). Dual Immersion Digital Instruction: A Theoretical Model for Equitable and Inclusive Classrooms. Íkala, Revista De Lenguaje Y Cultura, 26(3), 767–782. https://doi.org/10.17533/udea.ikala.v26n3a16