Intermodality and Multilingual Re-instantiation: Joint Construction in Bilingual Genre Pedagogy

Keywords: genre pedagogy, bilingual education, joint construction, EFL, Reading to Learn, intermodality, multilingualism.


This paper discusses the roles of intermodality and multilingualism in a genre pedagogy program aimed to improve students’ literacy in Indonesia. It draws on data from an intervention program which extended the Reading to Learn (R2L) genre-based literacy pedagogy to embed English literacy learning in biology lessons for Indonesian junior high school students. This bilingual R2L program is innovative in that it involves the use of written and spoken Bahasa Indonesia and English for both teaching materials and instruction. This particular study focuses on the final stage of the program: The collaborative writing process known as joint construction. This is conducted in the bilingual R2L program by jointly making notes from Indonesian (L1) reading texts, jointly re-instantiating these notes as English (L2) lexis, and then using these L2 notes to jointly construct new L2 texts. The methodology is thus intermodal and multilingual, from written L1 texts, through oral dictation to L1 notes, then through bilingual discussion to re-instantiation as written L2 lexis, and finally through further bilingual discussion to re-instantiation as written L2 text. The study applies genre and register theory to closely examine classroom interactions in Joint Construction, from the perspectives of their structuring, the intermodal sourcing of meanings, and relations between teachers and learners. Evidence from student assessments suggest these designed applications of intermodality and multilingual reinstantiation are highly effective in the development of autonomous skills in L2 science writing. This article aims to describe how and why they are so effective.

= 188 veces | PDF
= 94 veces|


Download data is not yet available.


Metrics Loading ...

Author Biographies

Harni Kartika-Ningsih, Universitas Indonesia
The Faculty of Education, Ho Tim Building, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, New Territories, Hong Kong Department of Linguistics, Faculty of Humanities, Universitas Indonesia, Depok 16424, West Java, Indonesia
David Rose, The University of Sydney

Ph. D. Linguistics, University of Sydney, Australia. Honorary Associate, Linguistics, University of Sydney, NSW, Australia.


Becerra, T., J. Herazo, P. García, A. Sagre, & L. Díaz (2020). Using Reading to Learn for EFL students’ reading of explanations. ELT Journal, 74(3), 237-246.

Christie, F. (2002). Classroom discourse analysis: A functional perspective. Bloomsbury Publishing.

Coffin, C., C. Acevedo and A-C. Lövstedt. (2013). Teacher Learning for European Literacy Education (TeL4ELE) Final Report. The Hague: European Union,

Dell, S. (2011). Reading revolution. Mail & Guardian Online,

Emilia, E. (2011). Pendekatan Genre-based dalam Pengajaran Bahasa Inggris: Petunjuk untuk Guru. Bandung, Rizqi Press.

Halliday, M.A.K. (1993). Towards a language-based theory of learning. Linguistics and Education, 5, 93–116.

Halliday, M. A. K., & Hasan, R. (1976). Cohesion in English [M1. London: Longman, 41.

Halliday, M. A. K., & Matthiessen, C. M. (2014). Halliday's introduction to functional grammar. Routledge.

Halliday, M. A. K., & Greaves, W. S. (2008). Intonation in the Grammar of English. Equinox.

Humphrey, S., & Macnaught, L. (2011). Revisiting joint construction in the tertiary context. Australian Journal of Language and Literacy, The, 34(1), 98.

Hyland, K. (2010). Teaching and researching writing (Applied linguistics in action).

Hunt, I. (1991). Negotiation in joint construction: Teaching literacy in early childhood. Unpublished Honours Thesis, University of Sydney.

Kartika-Ningsih, Harni. (in press). The Application of R2L Methodology in EFL Classrooms: A Bilingual Approach. In D. Rose & C. Acevedo (Eds.), Reading to Learn, Reading the World: How Genre-based Literacy Pedagogy is Democratizing Education. Equinox.

Kartika-Ningsih, H. (2019). Implementing the Reading to Learn Bilingual Program in Indonesia. In K. Rajandran & S. Abdul Manan (Eds.), Discourses of Southeast Asia (pp. 145-163). Springer, Singapore.

Kartika-Ningsih, H. (2016). Multilingual re-instantiation: Genre pedagogy in Indonesian classrooms. Unpublished PhD thesis, University of Sydney, Department of Linguistics.

Kartika-Ningsih, H. & Gunawan, W. (2019). Recontextualisation of genre-based pedagogy: The case of Indonesian EFL classrooms. Indonesian Journal of Applied Linguistics, 9(2), 335-347.

Kartika-Ningsih, H., & Rose, D. (2018). Language shift: analysing language use in multilingual classroom interactions. Functional Linguistics, 5(1), 9.

Lucas, A. M., McEwan, P. J., Ngware, M., & Oketch, M. (2014). Improving Early‐Grade Literacy In East Africa: Experimental Evidence From Kenya And Uganda. Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, 33(4), 950-976.

Martin, J. R. (1992). English text: System and structure. John Benjamins Publishing.

Martin, J. R. (2000). Grammar meets genre: Reflections on the ‘Sydney School’. Arts: The Journal of the Sydney University Arts Association 22: 47-95 [reprinted in Educational Research on Foreign Languages and Arts Sun Yat Sen University, Guangzhou (Special issue on Functional Linguistics and Applied Linguistics) 2 (2006): 28-54].

Martin, J. R. (2010). Semantic variation: Modelling realisation, instantiation and individuation in social semiosis. In M. Bednarek & J.R. Martin (Eds.). New discourse on language: Functional perspectives on multimodality, identity, and affiliation, 1-34. Continuum.

Martin, J. R. & Rose, D. (2008). Genre relations: Mapping culture. London, Equinox.

Martin, J. R. & Rose, D. (2007). Working with Discourse: Meaning Beyond the Clause. London, Continuum.

Millin, T (2011). Scaffolding Academic Literacy with Undergraduate Social Science Students at the University of KwaZulu-Natal using the Reading to Learn Intervention Strategy: an Evaluative Study. MSc Dissertation, The University of Edinburgh Moray House School of Education

Nation, I. S. P. (2011). Research into Practice: Vocabulary. Language Teaching, vol. 44, no. 4, pp. 529-539. ProQuest., doi:

Nuthall, G. (2005). The cultural myths and realities of classroom teaching and learning: A personal journey. Teachers College Record.

Purser, E., Dreyfus, S. &. Jones, P. (2020). Big ideas & sharp focus: Researching and developing students’ academic writing across the disciplines. Journal of English for Academic Purposes 43 (2020) 100807.

Ramírez, A. (2018). Paraphrastic academic writing: Entry point for first generation advanced bilingual college students. In Bilingual learners and social equity (pp. 179-198). Springer, Cham.

Rose, D. (2018). Pedagogic register analysis: mapping choices in teaching and learning. Functional Linguistics. 5, 3

Rose, D. (2020). Reading to Learn: Accelerating learning and closing the gap. Teacher training books and DVDs. Sydney: Reading to Learn,

Rose, D., & Martin, J. R. (2012). Learning to write, reading to learn: Genre, knowledge and pedagogy in the Sydney School. Sheffield, Equinox.

Rothery, J. (1994). Exploring literacy in school English (Write it right resources for literacy and learning). Sydney, Metropolitan East Disadvantaged Schools Program.

Shum, M. S. K., Tai, C. P., & Shi, D. (2016). Using ‘Reading to Learn’(R2L) pedagogy to teach discussion genre to non-Chinese-speaking students in Hong Kong. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 1-11,

Sinclair, J. M., & Coulthard, M. (1975). Towards an analysis of discourse: The English used by teachers and pupils. Oxford Univ Press.

Tribble, C. (2001). Small corpora and teaching writing. In M. Ghadessy, A. Henry, R.L. Roseberry (Eds.), Small corpus studies and ELT: theory and practice, John Benjamins, Amsterdam, pp. 381-408.

Webb, S., & Nation, P. (2016). How vocabulary is learned. Oxford University Press.
How to Cite
Kartika-NingsihH., & RoseD. (2021). Intermodality and Multilingual Re-instantiation: Joint Construction in Bilingual Genre Pedagogy. Íkala, 26(1), 185-205.