University Language Instructors’ Preparedness for Technology-Mediated Instruction and Burnout During the COVID-19 Pandemic
Keywords:Technology-mediated language instruction, COVID-19, language teaching, online teaching, teacher education, teacher burnout
This quantitative study explored the preparedness of foreign language teachers for technology-mediated instruction and the burnout conditions that characterized their transition from in-person to off-campus second/foreign language education during the covid-19 pandemic. The data were collected from 104 university instructors through a Google Forms® survey and a burnout questionnaire in a Mexican state which was severely hit by the virus in the spring of 2020. The survey elicited information about institutional conditions, teacher education and technology access and use. The burnout questionnaire explored exhaustion, depersonalization and accomplishment during off-campus technology-mediated language instruction. Both survey and questionnaire answers were subject to frequency analyses. In terms of teacher preparedness, data analyses revealed that the participants had a large number of teaching hours; they held sustained computer/Internet access but lacked technology-assisted language teaching training; thus, they independently sought out technological resources for the delivery of their lessons. With regard to burnout, data analyses indicated that many participants experienced exhaustion due to work overload, use of technology, and its proper integration in the lessons. Nonetheless, the use of technology helped them maintain interest in their learners, feel satisfaction and accomplish academic aims.
Bedoya, J., Betancourt, M., & Villa, F. (2018). Creación de una comunidad de práctica para formación de docentes en la integración de las TIC a los procesos de aprendizaje y enseñanza de lenguas extranjeras. Íkala, Revista de Lenguaje y Cultura, 23(1), 121–139. https://doi.org/10.17533/udea.ikala.v23n01a09
Carrillo, C. & Flores, M. (2020). covid-19 and teacher education: A literature review of online teaching and learning practices. European Journal of Teacher Education, 43(4), 466–487. https://doi.org/10.1080/02619768.2020.1821184
Chambers, A., & Bax, S. (2006). Making CALL work. Towards normalisation. System, 34, 465–479. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.system.2006.08.001
Chapelle, C. (2001). Computer applications in second language acquisition. Foundations for teaching, testing and research (pp. 132–156). Cambridge University Press. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781139524681
Cohen, L., Manion, L., y Morrison, K., (2007). Research methods in education. Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203029053
Dooly, M. & Sadler, R. (2020). If you don’t improve, what’s the point? Investigating the impact of a flipped online exchange in teacher education. ReCALL, 32, 4–24. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0958344019000107
Escudero, A. (2021). Metasíntesis sobre la narrativa educativa durante la pandemia por COVID-19. Diálogos sobre educación, 12(22), 1–28. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.edumed.2021.01.003
Felix, U. (2004). A multivariate analysis of secondary students’ experience of web-based language acquisition. ReCALL, 16(1), 237-249. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0958344004001715
Field, A. (2013). Discovering statistics using SPSS. Sage.
Freudenberger, H. J. (1974). Staff Burn-Out. Journal of Social Issues, 30(1), 159–165. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-4560.1974.tb00706.x
Gillespie, J. (2020). call research: Where are we now? ReCALL, 32(2), 127–144. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0958344020000051
Golonka, E., Bowles, A., Frank, V., Richardson, D., & Freynik, S. (2014). Technologies for foreign language learning: A review of technology types and their effectiveness. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 27, 70–105. https://doi.org/10.1080/09588221.2012.700315
Harker, M., & Koutsantoni, D. (2005). Can it be as effective? Distance versus blended learning in a web-based eap programme. ReCALL, 17, 197–216. https://doi.org/10.1017/S095834400500042X
Hedayati, H., & Marandi, S. (2014). Iranian efl teachers’ perceptions of the difficulties of implementing call. ReCALL, 26, 298-314. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0958344014000172
Heidari, S. & Gorjian, B. (2017). The effect of the level of English teachers’ burnout on the efl learners’ general English achievement at senior high school. Journal of Applied Linguistics and Language Learning, 3(2), 41–47.
Hodge, D. & Gillespie, D. (2007). Permanency for children in foster care: A competing risks analysis. Journal of Social Service Research, 33(4), 1–12. https://doi.org/10.1300/J079v33n04_04
Hsu, L. (2016) Examining efl teachers’ technological pedagogical content knowledge and the adoption of mobile-assisted language learning: A partial least square approach. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 29(8), 1287–1297. https://doi.org/10.1080/09588221.2016.1278024
Izquierdo, J. (2014). Multimedia instruction in foreign language classrooms: Effects on the acquisition of the French perfective and imperfective distinction. The Canadian Modern Language Review, 70(2), 188–219. https://doi.org/10.3138/cmlr.1697
Izquierdo, J., Aquino Zúñiga, S. P., & García Martínez, V. (2021). Foreign language education in rural schools: Struggles and initiatives among generalist teachers teaching English in Mexico. Studies in Second Language Teaching and Learning, 11(1),133–156. https://doi.org/10.14746/ssllt.2021.11.1.6
Izquierdo, J., De la Cruz, V., Aquino, S., Sandoval Caraveo, M. C., & García, V. (2017). Teachers’ use of icts in public foreign language education: Evidence from secondary schools. Comunicar. Revista de Comunicación y Educación, 50(25), 33–41. https://doi.org/10.3916/C50-2017-03
Izquierdo, J. García, V., Garza, G., & Aquino, S. (2016). First and target language use in public language education for young learners: Longitudinal evidence from Mexican secondary-school classrooms. System, 61, 20–30. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.system.2016.07.006
Lord, G., & Lomicka, L., (2011). Calling on educators: Paving the way for the future of technology and call. In N. Arnold and L. Ducate (Eds.), Present and future promises of CALL: From theory and research to new directions in language teaching (pp. 441–470). CALICO.
Lozano, A., & Izquierdo, J. (2019). The use of technology in second language education: Overcoming the digital divide. Journal of Emerging Trends in Education, 2(3), 52–70. https://doi.org/10.19136/etie.a2n3.3250
MacIntyre, P., Gregersen, T., & Mercer, S. (2020). Language teachers’ coping strategies during the COVID-19 conversion to online teaching: Correlation with stress. System, 94, 1–13. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.system.2020.102352
Manegre, M. & Kashif, A. (2020). Online language learning using virtual classrooms: An analysis of teacher perceptions. Computer-assisted Language Learning, 33, 1–16 https://doi.org/10.1080/09588221.2020.1770290
Maslach, C., Jackson, S. E. & Leiter, M. P. (1997). Maslach Burnout Inventory (3rd ed.). Consulting Psychologist Press.
Maslach, C., & Leiter, M. (2008). Early predictors of job burnout and engagement. Journal of Applied Psychology, 93, 498–512. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.93.3.498
Maslach, D., Schaufeli, W. B., & Leiter, M. P. (2001). Job Burnout. Annual Review of Psychology, 52, 397–442. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.psych.52.1.397
Meidani, E., Pishghadam, R., & Shakeebaee, G. (2019). The role of time perspectives in language teachers’ burnout. Current Psychology, https://doi.org/10.1007/s12144-019-00456-x
Mousavy, S., Skinah, N., Mukundan. J., & Mimehchisalem, V. (2012). Burnout among low and high experienced teachers. International Journal of Applied Linguistics & English Literature, 1(4), 24–29. https://doi.org/10.7575/ijalel.v.1n.4p.24
Mukundan, J., Zare, P., Abdovahed, Z., Manaf, U., & Sahami, H. (2015). Language teacher burnout and school type. English Language Teaching, 8(9), 26–32. https://doi.org/10.5539/elt.v8n9p26
Nagamine, T. (2018). L2 teachers’ professional burnout and emotional stress: Facing frustration and demotivation toward one’s profession in Japanese efl context. In J. Martínez (Ed.), Emotions in second language teaching. Theory, research and teacher education (pp. 259–277). Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-75438-3_15
Peeters, W. & Pretorious, M. (2020). Facebook or fail-book: Exploring community in a virtual community of practice. ReCALL, 32, 291–306. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0958344020000099
Rezvani, M. & Rezvani, S. (2017). The relationship between efl teachers’ burnout and their students’ foreign language anxiety. International Journal of Research in Teacher Education, 8(3), 40–47.
Rotenstein, L., Torres, M., Ramos, M. A., Rosales, R., Guille, C., Sen, S. & Mata, D., (2018). Prevalence of burnout among physicians: A systematic review. JAMA—Journal of the American Medical Association, 320(11), 1131–1150. https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2018.12777
Sadeghi, K. & Khezrlou, S. (2016). The experience of burnout among English language teachers in Iran: Self and other determinants, Teacher Development, 20(5), 1–17. https://doi.org/10.1080/13664530.2016.1185028
Sagarra, N., & Zapata, G. (2008). Blending classroom instruction with online homework: A study of student perceptions of computer-assisted L2 learning. ReCALL, 20, 208–224. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0958344008000621
Shirazizadeh, M., & Karimpour, M. (2019). An investigation of the relationships among efl teachers’ perfectionism, reflection and burnout. Cogent Education, 6, 1–13. https://doi.org/10.1080/2331186X.2019.1667708
Yoon, S. & Gruba, P. (2019). Evaluating normalisation: An argument-based approach. System, 83, 4–12. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.system.2019.04.008
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2021 Íkala
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.