Forms Taken by Archaisms in Contracts: A Corpus Research

Authors

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.17533/udea.ikala.v27n2a07

Keywords:

archaisms, suffixed adverbs, collaboration contracts, legal English, legalese, corpus research

Abstract


According to Christopher Williams, contracts tend to display significant use of archaisms which generally take the form of suffixed adverbs. The aim of this triangulated empirical study, of mixed nature, is to verify such phenomenon by analysing a corpus of 80 collaboration contracts —20 joint venture, exclusive distribution, franchise, and technology transfer agreements— undersigned in the United States. To achieve this objective, a lexical inventory of 171 archaisms was compiled. Then, using the AntConc software, the frequency of the anachronistic manifestations contained in the document sample was collected and the most regular ones were extracted on the data obtained on the suffixed adverbs. Results show that the most recurring archaisms in these contracts adopt the form of suffixed adverbs in 11 occasions, and other forms in 26 occasions. Therefore, Williams' statement is not applicable to the compiled corpus. These findings put an end to the association of the concept archaisms to suffixed adverbs, and provide a new detailed perspective on contractual anachronistic features.

|Abstract
= 79 veces | PDF (ESPAÑOL (ESPAÑA))
= 65 veces|

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Metrics

Metrics Loading ...

Author Biography

Valeria Hernández García, Universidad de Córdoba

Estudiante de doctorado, Universidad de Córdoba, Córdoba, España.

References

Abohadi, K. H. A. (2019). A review of the legal language development with the focus on its lexicogrammatical features. International Journal of Creative and Innovative Research in All Studies, 2(6), 53-58. http://ijciras.com/PublishedPaper/IJCIRAS1449.pdf

Adams, K. A. (2013). A manual of style for contract drafting (3.ª ed.). American Bar Association.

Alcaraz Varó, E. (2007). El inglés jurídico. Textos y documentos (6.ª ed.). Ariel.

Alcaraz Varó, E. y Hughes, B. (2014). Legal translation explained. Routledge.

Alvarado Moya, I. (2004). Guía para la traducción de contratos de arrendamiento [Informe de maestría, Universidad Nacional de Costa Rica]. Repositorio de la Universidad Nacional de Costa Rica. https://repositorio.una.ac.cr/handle/11056/14326

Anesa, P. (2007). Vagueness and precision in contracts: A close relationship. Linguistica e Filologia, (24), 7-38. https://doi.org/10.6092/LEF_24_P7

Bhatia, K. L. (2010). Textbook on legal language and legal writing. Universal Law Publishing.

Bouchoux, D. E. (2020). Concise guide to legal research and writing (4.ª ed.). Wolters Kluwer.

Cambridge. (s. f.). Cambridge Dictionary. https://dictionary.cambridge.org/es/

Centre for Plain Legal Language. (1995). Law words: 30 essays on legal words and phrases. University of Sydney.

Collins. (s. f.). Collins dictionary. https://www.collinsdictionary.com/es/

Crystal, D. y Davy, D. (2013). Investigating English style. Routledge (Taylor & Francis Group).

Cuñado de Castro, F. y Gámez González, R. (2020). Contract law in action: principales dificultades del inglés de los contratos, inédito.

Drăcșineanu, C. (2020). The use of Latinisms and archaisms in legal English. Acta Universitatis George Bacovia. Juridica, 9(1), 301-313. https://bit.ly/3CjTUSJ

El-Farahaty, H. (2015). Arabic-English-Arabic legal translation. Routledge (Taylor & Francis Group).

Emmet, D. (2020). Drafting (20.ª ed.). Oxford University Press.

Espenschied, L. E. (2010). Contract drafting: Powerful prose in transactional practice. American Bar Association.

Fanego, T. y Rodríguez-Puente, P. (2019). “Why may not that be the skull of a lawyer?” English legal discourse past and present. En T. Fanego y P. Rodríguez-Puente (Eds.), Corpus-based research on variation in English legal discourse (pp. 1-21). John Benjamins.

Gámez González, R. y Cuñado de Castro, F. (2013, 15 de enero). Provided that no siempre significa ‘siempre que’ [Blog]. https://traduccionjuridica.es/provided-that-no-siempre-significa-siempre-que/

Gámez González, R. y Cuñado de Castro, F. (2016, 13 de enero). 6 características del léxico jurídico inglés [Blog]. https://traduccionjuridica.es/6-caracteristicas-del-lexico-juridico-ingles/

Gámez González, R. y Cuñado de Castro, F. (2019, 24 de julio). Qué son las preposiciones sufijadas [Blog]. https://traduccionjuridica.es/preposiciones-sufijadas/

Garner, B. A. (1995). A dictionary of modern legal usage (2.ª ed.). Oxford University Press.

Garner, B. A. (2016). Fax. En Garner’s modern English usage (4.ª ed., p. 380). Oxford University Press.

Gobierno de Australia. (2016). Words and phrases guide. A guide to plain legal language. Gobierno de Australia. https://www.pco.act.gov.au/library/Words%20and%20Phrases.pdf

Goźdź-Roszkowski, S. (2011). Patterns of linguistic variation in American legal English. A corpus-based study. Peter Lang.

Haigh, R. (2009). Legal English (2.ª ed.). Routledge-Cavendish (Francis & Taylor).

Krapivkina, O. A. (2017). Semantics of the verb shall in legal discourse. Jezikoslovlje, 18.1, 305-317. https://hrcak.srce.hr/189437

Mariotto, L. B. (2006a). Traducciones de contratos: inglés-español, español-inglés (tomo 1). Mariotto.

Mariotto, L. B. (2006b). Traducción de contratos inglés-español según el “Plain Language Movement”. En I Congreso Internacional de Traducción Especializada, Buenos Aires (pp. 1-6).

McEnery, T. y Wilson, A. (1996). Corpus linguistics. Edinburgh University Press.

Mellinkoff, D. (1992). Covenant. En Mellinkoff’s dictionary of American legal usage (2.ª ed, p. 135).

Mellinkoff, D. (2004). The language of the law. Resource Publications (Wipf and Stock Publishers).

Orts Llopis, M. Á. (2005). Semejanzas y diferencias léxicas en el lenguaje contractual en inglés y en castellano. Ibérica, (10), 23-40. http://www.aelfe.org/documents/03-Ib10-Orts.pdf

Pérez Hernández, M. C. (2002). Explotación de los córpora textuales informatizados para la creación de bases de datos terminológicas basadas en el conocimiento.

Estudios de Lingüística del Español, (18). http://elies.rediris.es/elies18/

Pryer, L. S. (1944). The subjunctive in Early American English. Michigan State College of Agriculture and Applied Science.

Riera, C. (2015). Plain English in legal language: A comparative study of two uk Acts of Parliament. Alicante Journal of English Studies, (28), 147-163. https://doi.org/10.14198/raei.2015.28.08

Stephens, C. (2008). Plain language legal writing. Plain Language Wizardry Books.

Strati, E. y Enesi, M. (2019). Syntactic properties of legal language in English and Albanian. En International Conference on the Future of Education, Florencia (pp. 1-5).

Thorpe, C. P. y Bailey, J. C. L. (1999). Commercial contracts: A practical guide to deals, contracts, agreements and promises (edición revisada). Kogan Page.

Tiersma, P. M. (1999). Legal language. The University of Chicago Press.

Tiersma, P. M. (2006). Some myths about legal language. Law, Culture and the Humanities, 2(1), 20-50. https://doi.org/10.1191/1743872106lw035oa

Trosborg, A. (1997). Rhetorical strategies in legal language. Discourse analysis of statutes and contracts. Gunter Narr.

Veretina-Chiriac, I. (2012). Characteristics and features of legal English vocabulary. Revistă Ştiinţifică a Universităţii de Stat din Moldova, 54(4), 103-107.

Williams, C. (2005). Tradition and change in legal English. Verbal constructions in prescriptive texts. Peter Lang.

Williams, C. (2011). Legal English and plain language: An update. esp Across Cultures, (8), 139-151. https://edipuglia.it/wp-content/uploads/ESP%202011/Williams.pdf

Zhang, G. (2014). A comparative analysis of lexical features of contract English. International Journal on Studies in English Language and Literature, 2(9), 56-64. https://www.arcjournals.org/pdfs/ijsell/v2-i9/9.pdf

Published

2022-05-18

How to Cite

Hernández García, V. (2022). Forms Taken by Archaisms in Contracts: A Corpus Research. Íkala, Revista De Lenguaje Y Cultura, 27(2), 411–429. https://doi.org/10.17533/udea.ikala.v27n2a07