Role Reversal: An Overview of Audiovisual Translation into English

Authors

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.17533/udea.ikala.v28n2a01

Keywords:

audiovisual translation, streaming platforms, subtitling, dubbing into English

Abstract

This article depicts the current state of the art of English-language audiovisual translation (AVT) and sheds light on the recent changes impacting media localisation practices, viewing patterns, and viewer agency. The motivations that have catapulted practices like subtitling and dubbing into English on video-on-demand (VOD) platforms are considered, and special emphasis is placed on the move from English-language content to the production and distribution of originals created in a multitude of languages and showcased on streaming platforms with subs and dubs in English. Some of the latest technological advancements are discussed as they have influenced the viewing experience and audience selection of AVT modes, leading to a significant change in viewing patterns and preferences of anglophone viewers. Challenges posed to studying and training in English AVT are identified and the importance of inverting one’s gaze and perceiving English as the target language of translation, rather than the source language, is stressed in this new paradigm. Concrete suggestions are made for potential avenues of research in this flourishing field, which will hopefully contribute to painting a more detailed picture of English AVT.

|Abstract
= 298 veces | PDF
= 311 veces|

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Author Biographies

Jorge Díaz-Cintas, University College London, United Kingdom

Professor of Translation Studies.

Lydia Hayes, University of Bristol, United Kingdom

A contracted consultant to localisation company ZOO Digital, for whom she works as the curriculum designer within the educational branch of the company: ZOO Academy. Her work involves in-house course creation and external university liaisons. Lydia is also a lecturer on the MA in Translation at the University of Bristol (UK). Her teaching focuses on subtitling and script adaptation for dubbing, as well as on journalistic and literary translation, and she teaches students predominantly with a Spanish-English language specialisation. Lydia is also a Reviews Collaborator for the Universidad de Córdoba’s (Spain) Translation Studies journal Hikma. Her expertise from doctoral research at UCL lies in Spanish dubbing, English dubbing, Variationist Sociolinguistics, and Phonetics. 

References

Adoma (n.d.). Series españolas que triunfan por el mundo… dobladas. Artistas de Doblaje de Madrid https://adoma.es/series-espanolas-que-triunfan-por-el-mundo-dobldas-2

Alfano, V. (2020). Subtitling gender stereotypes into English: The case of comedy Italian style. PhD thesis. University College London. https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/10119161

Ávila-Cabrera, J. J. (2020). Profanity and blasphemy in the subtitling of English into European Spanish: four case studies based on a selection of Tarantino’s films. Quaderns, Revista de Traducció, 27, 125–140.

Black, S. (2022). Could integrated subtitles benefit young viewers? Children’s reception of standard and integrated subtitles: a mixed methods approach using eye tracking. Perspectives, 30(3), 503–519. https://doi.org/10.1080/0907676X.2020.1849324

Bolaños-García-Escribano, A., Díaz-Cintas, J. & Massidda, S. (Eds.) (2021). Latest advancements in audiovisual translation education, special issue of The Interpreter and Translator Trainer, 15(1). https://doi.org/10.1080/1750399X.2021.1880308

Brennan, L. (2018). How Netflix expanded to 190 countries in 7 years. Harvard Business Review. https://hbr.org/2018/10/how-netflix-expanded-to-190-countries-in-7-years#comment-section

Bruti, S., & Vignozzi, G. (forthcoming). Pinocchio and its lasting legacy. A study across adaptations and dubbings. In I. Ranzato, & L. Valleriani (Eds.), The classics translated on screen, special issue of Token: A Journal of English Linguistics, 17.

Bylykbashi, K. (2019). The big business of dubbing. TBI Vision. https://tbivision.com/2019/04/04/the-big-business-of-dubbing

Chaume, F. (2012). Audiovisual translation: Dubbing. Routledge.

Collins, K. 2018. Netflix's plan to get everyone watching foreign-language content. Yes, even English-speaking Americans. CNET Magazine. www.cnet.com/culture/entertainment/netflixs-plan-to-get-everyone-watching-foreign-language-content

Cunningham, K. (2023). Mumbling actors, bad speakers or lazy listeners? Why everyone is watching TV with subtitles on. The Guardian. www.theguardian.com/tv-and-radio/2023/jan/28/mumbling-actors-bad-speakers-or-lazy-listeners-why-everyone-is-watching-tv-with-subtitles-on

Díaz-Cintas, J., & Remael, A. (2007). Audiovisual translation: Subtitling. Routledge.

Díaz-Cintas, J., & Orero, P. (2010). Voiceover and dubbing. In Y. Gambier, & L. van Doorslaer (Eds.), Handbook of Translation Studies (pp. 441–445, volume 1). John Benjamins.

Fetner, C., & Sheehan, D. (2017). Netflix is looking for the best translators around the globe. https://about.netflix.com/en/news/netflix-is-looking-for-the-best-translators-around-the-globe

Filmer D. (2019). Voicing diversity? Negotiating Italian identity through voice-over translation in BBC broadcasting. Perspectives, 27(2), 299–315. https://doi.org/10.1080/0907676X.2018.1449871

Forsberg, C. (2023). Subtitles become popular among general population due to changes in TV, film consumption. ABC News: Australian Broadcasting Corporation. www.abc.net.au/news/2023-02-12/subtitles-popular-among-general-population-change-tv-film/101956758

Franco-Aixelá, J. (1996). Culture-specific items in translation. In R. Álvarez, & Ma Carmen-África Vidal (Eds.), Translation, power, subversion (pp. 52–78). Multilingual Matters.

Gottlieb, H. (2009). Subtitling against the current: Danish concepts, English minds. In J. Díaz-Cintas (Ed.), New trends in audiovisual translation (pp. 21–43). Multilingual Matters. https://doi.org/10.21832/9781847691552-004

Greenwood, G. (2023). Younger TV viewers prefer to watch with subtitles on. The Times. www.thetimes.co.uk/article/younger-tv-viewers-prefer-to-watch-with-subtitles-on-bbbcthft8

Hall, S. (2016). The first 15 feature films broadcast on British television. Sheldon Times. http://sheldontimeshall.com/the-first-15-feature-films-broadcast-on-british-television-v2

Hayes, L. (2021). Netflix disrupting dubbing: English dubs and British accents. Journal of Audiovisual Translation, 4(1), 1–26. https://doi.org/10.47476/jat.v4i1.2021.148

Hayes, L. (2022). Linguistic variation in Netflix’s English dubs: Memetic translation of Galician-Spanish series Fariña (Cocaine Coast). In L. Mejías-Climent, & F. Carrero Martín (Eds.), New perspectives in audiovisual translation: Towards future research trends (pp. 185–210). Publicacions Universitat València.

Hayes, L. (2023). English dubs: why are viewers receptive to the dubbing mode and to (‘foreign’) accent strategies. Íkala, Revista de Lenguaje y Cultura, 28(2), 1–20.

Hayes, L., & Bolaños-García-Escribano, A. (2022). (Main)streaming English dubs: a snapshot of Netflix’s playbook on strategies for English dubbing. Journal of Audiovisual Translation, 5(2), 213–233. https://doi.org/10.47476/jat.v5i2.2022

Holmes, S. P. (2000). The Hollywood star system and the regulation of actors’ labour, 1916-1934. Film History 12(1), 97–114. www.jstor.org/stable/3815272

Lee, W. (2022). Why dubbing has become more crucial to Netflix’s business. Los Angeles Times, 28 February. www.latimes.com/entertainment-arts/business/story/2022-02-28/why-dubbing-has-become-more-crucial-to-netflixs-business

McDonald, P. (2000). The star system: Hollywood’s production of popular identities. Wallflower.

Marking, M. (2022). Netflix COO reveals scale of dubbing and subtitling operations. Slator. https://slator.com/netflix-coo-reveals-scale-of-dubbing-subtitling-operations

Mereu Keating, C. (2021). “The usual hubbub of accents”: Italian films, transnational distribution and the reception of English-language dubbing in Britain (1950s-60s). Textus. English Studies in Italy, 1, 255-276. https://doi.org/10.7370/100404

Netflix. (2018). A great story and come from anywhere and travel everywhere. https://about.netflix.com/en/news/a-great-story-can-come-from-anywhere-and-travel-everywhere

Netflix. (2023). Dubbed audio style guide – Lector dubbing. https://partnerhelp.netflixstudios.com/hc/en-us/articles/220454368-Dubbed-Audio-Style-Guide-Lector-Dubbing

Nornes, A. M. (2007). Cinema Babel. Translating global cinema. University of Minnesota Press.

Orrego-Carmona, D. (2021). Squid Game: Why you shouldn’t be too hard on translators. The Conversation. https://theconversation.com/squid-game-why-you-shouldnt-be-too-hard-on-translators-169968

O’Sullivan, C. & Cornu, J.-F. (2019). The translation of films, 1900–1950. The British Academy by Oxford University Press.

Official Journal of the European Union. (2018). Article 13 of the Audiovisual Media Services Directives. https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/PDF/?uri=CELEX:32018L1808&from=EN

Parrot Analytics. (2021). US demand for non-English content. https://tinyurl.com/4pjyvtc8

Patel, R. (2021). How SVoD platforms lead the internationalisation of popular content. Ampere Analysis. www.ampereanalysis.com/insight/how-svod-platforms-lead-the-internationalisation-of-popular-content

Pearson, B. (2022). Here's why movie dialogue has gotten more difficult to understand (and three ways to fix it). Slash Film. www.slashfilm.com/673162/heres-why-movie-dialogue-has-gotten-more-difficult-to-understand-and-three-ways-to-fix-it

Pedersen, J. (2011). Subtitling norms for television: An exploration focussing on extralinguistic cultural references. John Benjamins.

Pedersen, J. (2017). The FAR model: assessing quality in interlingual subtitling. The Journal of Specialised Translation 28, 210–229.

Pedersen, J. (2018). From old tricks to Netflix: how local are interlingual subtitling norms for streamed television? Journal of Audiovisual Translation 1(1), 81–100. https://doi.org/10.47476/jat.v1i1.46

Ranzato, I. (2016). Translating culture specific references on television: The case of dubbing. Routledge.

Sánchez-Mompeán, S. (2021). Netflix likes it dubbed: taking on the challenge of dubbing into English. Language & Communication, 80, 180–190. www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0271530921000562

Sanders, L. (2022). Subtitling, semiotics and Spirited Away. Journal of Audiovisual Translation, 5(1), 1–21. https://doi.org/10.47476/jat.v5i1.2022.112

Savoldelli, S., & Spiteri Miggiani, G. (2023). The rendering of multilingual occurrences in Netflix’s Italian dub streams: evolving trends and norms on streaming platforms. Languages, 8(113), 1–23. https://doi.org/10.3390/languages8020113

South China Morning Post (2021). Voice actors in demand as Netflix series like Lupin and Money Heist put dubbed content front and centre. www.scmp.com/lifestyle/entertainment/article/3128576/voice-actors-demand-netflix-series-lupin-and-money-heist

Spiteri-Miggiani, G. (2021a). English-language dubbing: challenges and quality standards of an emerging localisation trend. The Journal of Specialised Translation, 36, 2–25. www.jostrans.org/issue36/art_spiteri.pdf

Spiteri-Miggiani, G. (2021b). Exploring applied strategies for English-language dubbing. Journal of Audiovisual Translation, 4(1), 137–156. https://doi.org/10.47476/jat.v4i1.2021.166

Svensson, G. (2001), “Glocalization” of business activities: a “glocal strategy” approach. Management Decision 39(1), 6–18. https://doi.org/10.1108/EUM0000000005403

Zanettin, F. (2012). Translation-driven corpora. St. Jerome.

Zeng, W., & Li, D. (2023). Presenting China’s image through the translation of comments: a case study of the WeChat subscription account of Reference News. Perspectives, 31(2), 313–330. https://doi.org/10.1080/0907676X.2021.1960397

Magnolio (homenaje al dr. Carlos E. Morán)

Downloads

Published

2023-05-31

How to Cite

Díaz-Cintas, J., & Hayes, L. (2023). Role Reversal: An Overview of Audiovisual Translation into English. Íkala, Revista De Lenguaje Y Cultura, 28(2), 1–18. https://doi.org/10.17533/udea.ikala.v28n2a01