Assessing Reading Strategy Training Based on CALLA Model in EFL and ESL Context
Keywords:reading strategies, underlining strategy, reading strategy training, English as a Foreign Language (EFL), English as a Second Language (ESL)
Reading strategies instruction is currently gaining much attention as an effective means of enhancing reading comprehension. In this research, we examined the effect of Underlining Strategy Intervention, based on the CALLA model in EFL and ESL contexts. A group of 189 college students were randomly selected from different universities in Iran and India. Based on a proficiency test, students were grouped into high, moderate, and low level. Then, the underlining strategy was taught during the treatment sessions. The results suggest that intervention or explicit instruction was effective in increasing the reading comprehension of both Iranian and Indian students although Indian ESL students were able to perform better in comparison to their Iranian EFL counterparts. There was no significant difference between proficiency level and students' performance in reading comprehension in EFL and ESL contexts. In addition, there was no significant difference between males and females in both contexts.
Afflerbach, P. (1990). The influence of prior knowledge on expert readers' main idea construction strategies. Reading Research Quarterly, 25, 31-46.
Ahmad, I. S,. & Asraf, R. M. (2004). Making sense of text: Strategies used by good and average readers. Reading Matrix, 26-37. Retrieved March 10, 2007, from http://www.readingmatrix.com/articles/asraf_ahmad/article.pdf.
Anderson, J. H., & Armbruster, B. B. (1985). Study strategies and their implications for textbook design. TESOL Quarterly, 20, 159-173.
Anderson, R.C., & Pearson, P.D. (1984). A schema-theoretic view of basic processes in reading. In P.D. Pearson (Ed.), Handbook of reading research (pp. 255-292). New York: Longman.
Bang, H. J., & Zhao, C. G. (2007). Reading strategies used by advanced Korean and Chinese ESL graduate students: A case study. The Reading Matrix, 7(1). Retrieved February 10, 2008, from http://www.readingmatrix.com/articles.
Blanchard, J. and Mikkelson, V. (1987). Underlining performance outcomes in expository text. Journal of Educational Research, 80, 197-201.
Block, E. L. (1986). The comprehension strategies of second language readers. TESOL Quarterly, 20, 463-494. Block, E. L. (1992). See how they read: Comprehension monitoring of L1 and L2 readers. TESOL Quarterly, 26, 319-342.
Brady, P. J., & Rickards, J. P. (1979). How personal evaluation affects the underlining and recall of prose material. Journal of Reading Behavior, 11(1), 61-68.
Brown, A. L., & Day, J. D. (1983). Macrorules for summarizing texts: The development of expertise. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal
Behavior, 22, 1-14.
Brown, A. L. & Smiley, S. S. (1978). The development of strategies for studying texts. Child Development, 49, 1076-1088.
Cashen, V. M., & Leicht, K. L. (1970). Role of the isolated effect ina formal educational setting. Journal of Educational Psychology, 61, 484-486.
Caverly, D. C., Orlando, V. P, & Mullen, J.L. (2000). Textbook study reading.In R.F. Flippo and D. C. Caverly, Handbook of College Reading and Study Strategy Research (pp. 105-149). New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc
Chamot, A. U. (1998). Teaching learning strategies to language students. (ERIC Document Reproduction Services No. ED433719).
Chamot, A. U., & Kupper, L. (1989). Learning strategies in foreign language instruction. Foreign Language Annals, 22, 13-24.
Chamot, A., & O'Malley, J. (1987). The cognitive academic language learning approach: A bridge to the mainstream. TESOL Quarterly, 21, 227-249.
Chamot, A., & O'Malley, J. (1994). The CALLA Handbook: Implementing the Cognitive Academic Language Learning Approach. Addison-Wesley Pub. Co.
Chavez, M. (2001). Gender in the language classroom. Boston: McGraw Hill.
Clump, M. A., Bauer, H. & Bradley, C. (2004). The extent to which Psychology students read textbooks: A multiple class analysis of reading across the Psychology curriculum. Journal of Instructional Psychology, 31, 227-229.
Cohen, A. D. (1990). Language learning: Insights for learners, teachers, and researchers. New York: Newbury House.
Derry, S. J. (1988-1989). Putting learning strategies to work. Educational Leadership, 46(4), 4-10.
Di Vesta, F. and Gray, G. (1973). Listening and note taking. Journal of Educational Psychology, 64, 278-287.
Fass, W., & Schumacher, G. (1978). Effect of motivation, subject activity, and readability on the retention of prose material. Journal of Educational Psychology, 70, 803-807.
Glynn, S. (1978). Capturing reader's attention by means of typographical cueing strategies. Educational Technology, 18, 7-12.
Golding, J. M., Fowler, S.B. (1992). The limited facilitative effect of typological signals. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 17, 99-113.
Green, J. M., & Oxford, R. L. (1995). A closer look at learning strategies, L2 proficiency, and gender. TESOL Quarterly, 29, 261-297.
Hakstain, A.R. (1971). The effects of type of examination anticipated on test preparation and performance. Journal of Educational Research, 64, 319-324.
Hartley, J., Bartlett, S., & Branthwaite, A. (1980). Underlining can make a difference–sometimes. Journal of Educational Research, 73, 218-224.
Hudson, T. (2007). Teaching second language reading. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press.
Johnson, D.D & Von Hoff Johnson, B. (1986). Highhlighting vocabulary in inferential comprehension instruction. Journal of Reading, 29 (7), 622-25.
Johnson, D. Wen S., (1976). Effects of correct and extraneous markings under time limits on reading. Psychology in the Schools, 13 454-456.
Kaylani, C. (1996). The influence of gender and motivation on EFL learning strategy use in Jordan. In: R. Oxford, Editor, Language Learning
Strategies Around the World: Cross-Cultural Perspectives, University of Hawaii, Honolulu (1996), pp. 75-88.
Klare, G. R., Mabry, J. E., & Gustafson, L. M. (1955). The relationship of patterning (underlining) to immediate retention and to acceptability of technical material. Journal of Applied Psychology, 39(1), 41-42.
Lindblom-Ylänne, S. (2004). Raising students' awareness of their approaches to study. Innovations in Education and Teaching International, 41(4), 405-421.
Macaro, E. (2001). Learning strategies in foreign and second language classroom. London: Continuum International.
Macaro, E., & Erler, L. (2008). Raising the achievement of young-beginner readers of French through strategy instruction. Applied Linguistics, 29, 90-119.
Marxen, D.E. (1996). Why reading and underlining a passage is a less effective study strategy than simply rereading the passage. Reading Improvement, 33(2), 88-96.
Mokhtari, K., & Reichard, C. A. (2002). Assessing students' metacognitive awareness of reading strategies. Journal of Educational Psychology, 94(2), 249-259.
Nist, S.L., & Hogrebe, M.C. (1987). The role of underlining and annotating in remembering textual information. Reading Research and Instruction, 27(1), 12-25.
Nunan, D. (1997). Strategy training in the language classroom: An empirical investigation. RELC Journal, 28, (2), 56-81.
Oh, J. (1992). Learning strategies used by university EFL students in Korea. Language Teaching, 1, 3-53.
Oxford, R. L. (1993). Research on second language learning strategies. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, 13,175-187.
Oxford, R. L. (1994). Individual differences among your ESL students: Why a single method can't work. Journal of Intensive ESL Studies, 7, 27-42.
Peterson, S. E. (1992). The cognitive functions of underlining as a study technique. Reading Research and Instruction, 31 (2), 49-56.
Pressley, M. (2002). Metacognition and self-regulated comprehension. In A. E. Farstrup & S. J. Samuels (Eds.), What research has to say about reading instruction (pp. 291-309), Newark, DE: International Reading Association.
Rajinder, S. D. (2008). Kit of reading comprehension. New Delhi: Dhillon Group of Publication.
Rayner, K., Frooman, B. R., Perfetti, C. A., Pesetsky, D., & Seidenberg, M. S. (2001). How should reading be taught? Psychological Science in the Public Interest, 2(2), 31-74.
Rickards, J., & August, G. J. (1975). Generative underlining strategies in prose recall. Journal of Educational Psychology, 67, 860-865.
Rickards, J. P. (1980). Notetaking, underlining, inserted questions, and organizers in text: Research conclusions and educational implications. Educational Technology, 20(6), 5-11.
Salataci, R., & Akyel, A. (2002). Possible effects of strategy instruction on L1 and L2 Reading. Reading in a Foreign Language, 14(1). Retrieved June 5, 2008, from http://nflrc.hawaii.edu/rfl.
Schumacher, G. M. (1987). Executive control in studying. In B.K. Britton & S.M. Glynn (Eds.), Executive control processes in reading (pp. 107-144). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Seki, U. (1997). Effects of Itemization and Highlighting Key Words on Text Comprehension. Journal of Japan Society for Educational Technology, 21, 17-20.
Sheorey, R. (1999). An examination of language learning strategy use in the setting of an indigenized variety of English. System 27 (1999), pp. 173-190.
Simpson, M. L., & Nist, S. L. (2000). An update on strategic learning: It's more than textbook reading strategies. Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, 43(6), 528-541.
Simpson, M. L., & Nist, S. L. (2002). Encouraging active reading at the college level. In C. C. Block & M. Pressley (Eds.), Comprehension instruction: research-based best practices (pp. 365-379), New York: Guilford.
Stordahl, J. B., & Christensen, C. M. (1956). The effect of study techniques on comprehension and retention. Journal of Educational Research, 49, 561-570.
Thompson, I. & Rubin, J. (1996). Can strategy instruction improve listening comprehension? Foreign Language Annals, 29(3), 331-342.
Uosaki, Y., Itoh, H., and Nojima E. (2003). Effectiveness of Underlining the Texts on Readers' Comprehension. Journal of Japan Society for Educational Technology, 26(4), 349-359.
Van Hout-Wolters, B. (1990). Teachers' selection of key phrases in instructional texts, Paper presented at the 40th annual meeting of the National Reading Conference in Miami, FL.
Vianty, M. (2007). The comparison of students' use of metacognitive reading strategies between reading in Bahasa Indonesia and in English. International Education Journal, 8(2), 449-460.
Wade, S. E., & Adams, R.B. (1990). Effects of importance and interest on recall of biographical text. Journal of Reading Behavior, 22, 331-353.
Weinstein, C. E., & Mayer, R. E. (1986). The teaching of learning strategies. In M. C. Wittrock (Ed.), Handbook of research on teaching (3rd ed., pp. 315-327). New York: Macmillan.
Winograd, P. N. (1984). Strategic difficulties in summarizing texts. Reading Research Quarterly, 19, 404-425.
Yip, M. C. W., & Chung, O. L. L. (2005). Relationship of study strategies and academic performance in different learning phases of higher
education in Hong Kong. Educational Research and Evaluation, 11(1), 61-70.
Yüksel, S. & Kosar, E. (2001) Egitim fakültesi ögrencilerinin ders çalısırken kullandıkları ögrenme stratejileri. Çagdas Egitim, 26(278), 29-36.
Zanias, G. S. (1996). The effect of supplementary entries on reading comprehension tests in college level, developmental reading classes. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 393 080).
Zhang, L. J. (2001). Awareness in reading: EFL students' metacognitive knowledge of reading strategies in an acquisition-poor environment. Language Awareness, 10, 268-288.