Spanish Language Education in the United States: Beginning, Present, and Future.

Keywords: Spanish instruction, Spanish language education, Castilian, Spanish language learners

Abstract

Language instruction and learning was an innate part of early educational programs in the United States. Among the most common languages taught at schools and universities were Latin, Greek, German, and French; however, Spanish was not formally taught at an American institution until 1749. Since then, the works of important scholars such as Mariano Cubí y Soler have provided the foundation for the success of the Spanish language in the United States. Today the Spanish language is thriving in the U.S. as it is considered the foreign language most commonly taught. Furthermore, by the year 2050 the United States is expected to have more Spanish speakers than any other country in the world. This literature review offers a historical analysis of the Spanish language instruction in the United States since its beginnings in the XVIII century to present. In addition, it offers information about the trends, methodologies and approaches used to teach Spanish throughout the years and offers an insight to possibilities of future research.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Author Biography

Luis Javier Pentón Herrera, Concordia University Chicago, Doctoral Candidate
Ph.D. in Leadership: Reading, Language, and Literacy, Concordia University Chicago. High school English for Speakers of Other Languages (ESOL) teacher at Prince George’s County Public Schools, and adjunct professor in TESOL at University of Maryland, Baltimore County, and Spanish, at University of Maryland, University College

References

American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages (ACTFL). (2011). Foreign language enrollments in K-12 public schools. Retrieved from https://www.actfl.org/sites/default/files/pdfs/ReportSummary2011.pdf

American National Biography. (2000). Carlo Bellini. Retrieved from http://www.anb.org/articles/20/20-01643.html

Arañó, D. M. (1876). Biografía de D. Mariano Cubí y Soler: Distinguido frenólogo español. Retrieved from http://www.filosofia.org/aut/001/1876cubi.htm

Blanco, J. A. & Donley, P. R. (2017). Panorama: Introducción a la lengua española (5th ed.). Boston, MA: Vista Higher Learning Inc.

Blaz, D. (2002). Bringing the standards for foreign language learning to life. Larchmont, NY: Eye on Education, Inc.

Bloom, B. S. (ed.). (1956).Taxonomy of educational objectives: The classification of educational goals. White Plains, NY: Longman.

Castrillo, M. D., Martín-Monje, E., & Bárcena, E. (2014).

Mobile-based chatting for meaning negotiation in foreign language learning. International Association for Development of the Information Society, pp. 49-58.

Cerezal, F. (1995). Foreign language teaching methods: Some issues and new moves. Encuentro, 8(7), pp. 110-132. Retrieved from http://www.encuentrojournal.org/textos/8.7.pdf

Chomón Zamora, C. (2013). Spanish heritage language schools in the United States. Center for Applied Linguistics, Heritage Briefs Collection. Retrieved from http://www.cal.org/heritage/pdfs/briefs/spanish-heritage-language-schools-in-the-us.pdf

Cubí y Soler, M. (1822). Extractos de los más célebres escritores y poetas españoles. Baltimore, MD: José Robinson.

Cubí y Soler, M. (1824). Gramática de la lengua castellana adaptada a toda clase de discípulos, a todo sistema de enseñanza, y al uso de aquellos estrangeros, que deseen conocer los principios, bellezas, y genio del idioma castellano. Baltimore, MD: José Robinson.

Cubí y Soler, M. (1826). El traductor español; or a new and practical system for translating the Spanish language. London: Boosey & Sons.

Cubí y Soler, M. (1831). Revista y Repertorio Bimestre de la Isla de Cuba, Tomo I. La Habana, Cuba: Imprenta Fraternal. Retrieved from https://archive.org/stream/revistabimestre00cubgoog#page/n8/mode/2up

Dema, O. & Moeller, A. J. (2012). Teaching culture in the 21st century language classroom. Touch the World, 5, pp. 75-91.

Dona, E., Stover, S., & Broughton, N. (2014). Modern language and distance education: Thirteen days in the cloud. Turkish Online Journal of Distance Education, 15(3), pp. 155-170.

Echevarria, J., Vogt, M. E., & Short, D. (2000). Making content comprehensible for English learners: The SIOP® Model. Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon.

Ferreira Cabrera, A., Vine Jara, A., & Elejalde, J. (2015). Diseño y evaluación de una aplicación tecnológica para la enseñanza del español como lengua extranjera. Onomázein, 31, pp. 145-166.

Franklin, B. (1749). Proposals relating to the education of youth in Pensilvania. Retrieved from http://sceti.library.upenn.edu/sceti/printedbooksNew/index.cfm?TextID=franklin_youth&PagePosition=1

García, A. M. (2002). Traducción y literatura en los manuales de Mariano Cubí. In F. Lafarga, C. Palacios, & A. Saura (Eds.), Neoclásicos y románticos ante la traducción (pp. 165-184). Universidad de Murcia: España.

Goldberg, D., Looney, D., & Lusin, N. (2015). Enrollments in languages other than English in the United States Institutions of Higher Education, Fall 2013. Modern Language Association. Retrieved from https://apps.mla.org/pdf/2013_enrollment_survey.pdf

Instituto Cervantes (2015). El español: Una lengua viva. Retrieved from http://www.cedro.org/docs/default-source/otros/informe_cervantes.pdf

Kareva, V. & Echevarria, J. (2013). Using the SIOP Model for effective content teaching with second and foreign language learners. Journal of Education and Training Studies, 1(2), pp. 239-248.

Leavitt, S. E. (1961). The teaching of Spanish in the United States. Hispania, 44(4), pp. 591-625.

Lessard-Clouston, M. (2016). Twenty years of culture learning and teaching research: A survey with highlights and directions. NECTFL Review, 77, pp. 53-90.

Lord, G. (2015). “I don’t know how to use words in Spanish”: Rosetta Stone and learner proficiency outcomes. Modern Language Journal, 99(2), pp. 401-405. doi:10.1111/modl.12234_3

Marinelli, P. J. & Fajardo, K. (2016). Conectados. Boston, MA: Cengage Learning.

McFarland, J., Hussar, B., de Brey, C., Snyder, T., Wang, X., Wilkinson-Flicker, S., Gebrekristos, S., Zhang, J., Rathbun, A., Barmer, A., Bullock Mann, F., & Hinz, S. (2017). The condition of education 2017. National Center for Education Statistics.

Nation, I. S. P. & Macalister, J. (2010). Language curriculum design. New York, NY: Routledge.

National Standards in Foreign Language Education Project (2006). Standards for foreign language learning in the 21st century. Lawrence, KS: Allen Press, Inc.

Outes Jiménez, R. (2017). El español escrito en el ámbito educativo de EE.UU.: La acreditación

docente en California. Glosas, 9(3), pp. 44-57.

Pentón Herrera, L. J. & Duany, M. (2016). Native Spanish speakers as binate language learners. NECTFL Review, 78, pp. 15-30.

Rexine, J. E. (1977). The Boston Latin school curriculum in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries: A bicentennial review. The Classical Journal, 72(3), pp. 261-266.

Richards, J. C. & Rodgers, T. S. (1986). Approaches and methods in language teaching: A description and analysis. United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press.

Roberts, J. (2016). Language teacher education. New York, NY: Routledge.

Roca, A. & Colombi, M. C. (2016).

Español para hispanohablantes: ¿Por qué iniciar y mantener un programa de español para hablantes nativos? Centro Virtual Cervantes. Retrieved from http://cvc.cervantes.es/lengua/espanol_eeuu/bilingue/aroca.htm

Rondon-Pari, G. (2011).

Comparative analysis of classroom speech in upper level Spanish college courses: A social constructivist view. Contemporary Issues in Education Research, 4(12), pp. 1-18.

Russell, B. D. & Kuriscak, L. M. (2015).

High school Spanish teachers’ attitudes and practices toward Spanish Heritage Language Learners. Foreign Language Annals, 48(3), pp. 413-433.

Shohamy, E., Inbar-Lourie, O., & Poehner, M. E. (2008).

Investigating assessment perceptions and practices in the advanced foreign language classroom. The Pennsylvania State University: Center for Advanced Language Proficiency Education and Research (CALPER).

Sole, C. (2003). Culture for beginners: A subjective and realistic approach for adult language learners. Language and Intercultural Communication, 3(2), pp. 141-150.

Spell, J. R. (1927). Spanish teaching in the United States. Hispania, 10(3), pp. 141-159.

Swanson, K. A. (2013). Teacher perceptions of technology and learner motivation in the second language classroom (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com.ezproxy.umuc.edu/docview/1458436240

The American Association of Teachers of Spanish and Portuguese (AATSP). (2016). History of the AATSP. Retrieved from http://www.aatsp.org/?page=History

The College of William and Mary. (2016a). Jefferson’s attempts at change. Retrieved from http://www.wm.edu/about/history/tjcollege/tjattemptsatchange/index.php

The College of William and Mary. (2016b). History of the Modern Languages Department. Retrieved from http://www.wm.edu/as/modernlanguages/about/

Toledo-López, A. A., & Pentón Herrera, L. J. (2015a).

Language immersion for adult learners: Bridging gaps from childhood to college. Florida Foreign Language Journal, 11(1), pp. 10-56.

Toledo-López, A. A., & Pentón Herrera, L. J. (2015b). Facilitators’ perspective: Strategies that work in higher education dual language immersion settings. NABE Perspectives, 38(3), pp. 16-22.

Toledo-López, A. A., & Pentón Herrera, L. J. (2015c). Dual language immersion in higher education: An introduction. NABE Perspectives, 37(2), pp. 24-28.

United States Bureau of Education. (1913). Monthly record of current educational publications. Bulletin, 1(508), pp. 1-154.

Vilar García, M. (2008). El español, segunda lengua en los Estados Unidos. De su enseñanza como idioma extranjero en Norteamérica al bilingüismo (3rd Ed.). Universidad de Murcia: Spain

Published
2018-05-08
Section
Theoretical Articles