generic, DisCourse, and lexicogrammatical Characteristics of a listening exercise in an EFL Classroom
Keywords:EFL learning, genre, listening tasks, systemic linguistics
AbstractThis paper describes the listening exercise as a textual genre of the EFL classroom. To this end, we analyzed a 30-minute listening activity in terms of its purpose, its discourse structure, and the lexicogrammatical choices in EFL of teacher and students. Findings reveal that the discourse structure and lexicogrammatical choices teacher and students made facilitated comprehension and created opportunities for meaningful EFL production, reaching the genre’s purpose. Whereas students were able to understand the listening text thanks to those choices, they were less successful in reporting what they heard and expressing opinions in EFL. This was due, in part, to how the comprehension task was realized linguistically and to the fact that little modeling was provided to express such functions.
Achugar, Mariana. (2003). Academic Registers in Spanish in the U.S.: A study of oral texts produced by bilingual speakers in a university graduate program. In A. R. C. Colombi (Ed.), Mi lengua: Spanish as a heritage language in the United States (pp. 213–234). Washington D.C: Georgetown University Press.
Achugar, Mariana, & Carpenter, Brian D. (2012). Developing disciplinary literacy in a multilingual history classroom. Linguistics and Education, 23(3), 262–276. doi: 10.1016/j.linged.2012.05.003
Achugar, M., Schleppegrell, M., & Orteiza, T. (2007). Engaging teachers in language analysis: A functional linguistics approach to reflective literacy. English Teaching: Practice and Critique, 6(2), 8–24.
Burns, A. (1990). Genre–based approaches to writing and beginning adult ESL learners. Prospect, 5(3), 62–71.
Busch, M. W. (2007). Task–based pedagogical activities as oral genres: A systemic functional linguistic analysis (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from http://www.library.pitt.edu
Byrnes, H. (2009a). Emergent L2 German writing ability in a curricular context: A longitudinal study of grammatical metaphor. Linguistics and Education, 20, 50–66. doi: 10.1016/j.linged.2009.01.005
Byrnes, H. (2009b). Systemic–functional reflections on instructed foreign language acquisition as meaningmaking: An introduction. Linguistics and Education, 20(1), 1–9.
Byrnes, H., Maxim, H. H., & Norris, J. M. (2010). Realizing advanced foreign language writing development in collegiate education: Curricular design, pedagogy, assessment. The Modern Language Journal, 94, 1–202. doi: 10.1111/j.1540-4781.2010.01136
Christie, F. (1991). Pedagogical and content registers in a writing lesson. Linguistics and Education, 3(3), 203– 224. doi: 10.1016/0898–5898(91)90008–7
Christie, F. (2002). Classroom discourse analysis: A functional perspective. New York: Continuum.
Colombi, C. (2009). A systemic functional approach to teaching Spanish for heritage speakers in the United States. Linguistics and Education, 20(1), 39–49. doi: 10.1016/j.linged.2009.01.004
Cullip, P. (2009). A tale of two texts: Tracking developments in learner writing. RELC Journal, 40(2), 192–210. doi: 10.1177/0033688209105866
Davin, K. J. (2013). Integration of dynamic assessment and instructional conversations to promote development and improve assessment in the language classroom. Language Teaching Research, 17(3), 303–322.
Donato, R. (1994). Collective scaffolding in second language learning. In Lantolf, J. P. & Appel, G. Norwood. (Eds). Vygotskian Approaches to Second Language Research, (pp. 33–56). N.J.: Ablex Press.
Dreyfus, S., Macnaught, L. & Humphrey, S. (2008). Understanding joint construction in the tertiary context. Linguistics and the Human Sciences,4(2), 135–160.
Eggins, Suzanne. (2004). An introduction to systemic functional linguistics (2nd ed.). New York ; London: Continuum.
Eggins, S., & Slade, D. (1997). Analysing casual conversation. Washington, D.C.: Cassell.
Feez, S., & Joyce, H. (1998). Text–based syllabus design. Sydney: National Centre for English Language Teaching and Research, Macquarie University.
Field, John. (2008). Listening in the language classroom. UK: Cambridge University Press.
Gass, S. M., & Mackey, A. (2000). Stimulated recall methodology in second language research. NJ: L. Erlbaum Associates.
Gibbons, P. (2003). Mediating language learning: Teacher interactions with ESL students in a content–based classroom. TESOL Quarterly, 37(2), 247–273.
Hall, J. K., & Walsh, M. (2002). Teacher student interaction and language learning. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, 22, 186–203.
Halliday, M. A. K. (1978). Language as social semiotic: The social interpretation of language and meaning. Baltimore: University Park Press.
Halliday, M. A. K., & Matthiessen, C. M. I. M. (2004). An introduction to functional grammar (3rd ed.). London: Hodder Education.
Herazo, J. D., & Donato, R. (2012). Mediating meaning in interaction: Researching the connection between professional development and teacher practice. In B. Yoon & H. K. Kim (Eds.). Teachers' roles in second language learning: Classroom applications of sociocultural theory (pp. 19–40). Charlotte (NC): Information Age Publishing.
Hinkel, Eli. (2006). Current Perspectives on Teaching the Four Skills. TESOL Quarterly, 40(1), 109–131.
Lave, J. & Wenger, E. (1991) Situated learning: Legitimate peripheral participation. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Macken–Horarik, M. (2002). ''Something to shoot for'': A systemic functional approach to teaching genre in secondary school science. In A. M. Johns (Ed.), Genre in the classroom: Multiple perspectives (pp. 17– 42). NJ; London: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Martin, J. (1999). Mentoring semogenesis: 'Genre–based' literacy pedagogy. In F. Christie (Ed.), Pedagogy and the shaping of consciousness (pp. 123–155). New York: Continuum.
Martin, J. (2009). Genre and language learning: A social semiotic perspective. Linguistics and Education, 20, 10–21. doi: 10.1016/j.linged.2009.01.003
Martin, J., & Rose, D. (2008). Genre relations: Mapping culture. London; Oakville: Equinox.
McCormick, D. E., & Donato, R. (2000). Teacher questions as scaffolded assistance in an ESL classroom. In J. K. Hall & L. S. Verplaetse (Eds.), Second and foreign laguage learning through classroom interaction (pp. 183–202). London: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Moss, M. G. (2000). The language of school textbooks and the ideology of science. Zona Proxima, 1, 44 – 55.
Moyano, E.I. (2005a). Interacción entre el docente y el grupo de alumnos en la negociación de la lectura conjunta. Paper presented at the II Congreso Internacional de la IADA, UNLP, La Plata, Argentina.
Moyano, E.I. (2005b). Una propuesta para la enseñanza de la lectura y la escritura basada en la teoría de género y registro de la LSF: resultados de una investigación e implementación en diferentes niveles educativos. Paper presented at the II Conferencia Latinoamericana de Lingüística Sistémico–Funcional. ALSFAL, Concepción, Chile.
Nassaji, H., & Wells, G. (2000). What's the Use of 'Triadic dialogue'?: An Investigation of Teacher–Student Interaction. Applied Linguistics, 21(3), 376–406.
Natale, L. (2005). La lectura de los textos de estudio en el nivel polimodal. Una propuesta didáctica basada en la Lingüística Sistémico Funcional. Paper presented at the I Jornadas de Enseñanza de la Lengua y la Literatura ''Teorías literarias y lingüísticas en los niveles medio y superior'', PROYART–UNGS, ISFD N°42 e ISFD N°21. Los Polvorines, UNGS.
Perret, G. (2000). Researching second and foreign language development. In L. Unsworth (Ed.), Researching language in schools and communities: Functional linguistic perspectives (pp. 87–110). Washington: Cassell.
NVivo (Version 9) [Computer software]. Burlington, MA: QSR International.
Richards, Jack C., & Burns, Anne. (2012). The Cambridge guide to pedagogy and practice in second language teaching. New York: Cambridge University Press
Rosado, N. (2012). Contingent interaction: a case study in a Colombian EFL classroom. Zona Próxima, 17, 154–175.
Rose, D. (2007). Towards a reading based theory of teaching. Paper presented at the 33rd International Systemic Functional Congress 2006, PUCSP, SÃ£o Paulo, Brazil.
Rose, D., & Martin, J. R. (2012). Learning to write, reading to learn: Genre, knowledge and pedagogy in the Sydney School. Sheffield, USA: Equinox.
Schleppegrell, M. (2004). Tï»¿he language of schooling: A functional linguistics perspective. N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Thompson, G. (2004). Introducing functional grammar (2nd ed.). New York: Arnold; Oxford University Press.
Thoms, J. J. (2012). Classroom discourse in foreign language classrooms: A review of the literature. Foreign Language Annals, 45(S1), S8–S27. doi:10.111 /j.1944–9720.2012.01177
Toth, P. D. (2008). Teacher– and learner–led discourse in taskbased grammar instruction: Providing procedural assistance for L2 morphosyntactic development. [Article]. Language Learning, 58(2), 237–283. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-9922.2008.00441
Troyan, F. (2014). Leveraging Genre Theory: A Genre Based Interactive Model for the Era of the Common Core State Standards. Foreign Language Annals, 47 (1), 5–24.
Van Lier, L. (1998). Constraints and resources in classroom talk: Issues of equality and symmetry.In H. Byrnes (Ed.), Learning foreign and second languages (pp. 157–182). New York: The Modern Language Association of America.
Ventola, Eija. (1987). The structure of social interaction: a systemic approach to the semiotics of service encounters. London: F. Pinter.
Wood, D., Bruner, J., & Ross, G. (1976). The role of tutoring in problem solving. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 17, 89–100.
Wells, G. (1993). Reevaluating the IRF sequence: A proposal for the articulation of theories of activity and discourse for the analysis of teaching and learning in the classroom. Linguistics and Education, 5(1), 1–37. doi: 10.1016/s0898-5898(05)80001-4